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Who said: “A people without children would face a hopeless future; a country without trees is almost as helpless.”
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JUNE 28 – BIRTHS – Scientists born on June 28th
  Klaus von Klitzing
 Born 28 Jun 1943.
German physicist who was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1985 for his discovery, made in 1980, of the quantized Hall effect. Under appropriate conditions the resistance offered by an electrical conductor is quantized; that is, it varies by discrete steps rather than smoothly and continuously. His experiments enabled other scientists to study the conducting properties of electronic components with extraordinary precision. His work also aided in determining the precise value of the fine-structure constant and in establishing convenient standards for the measurement of electrical resistance.
  John Stewart Bell II
 Born 28 Jun 1928; died 1 Oct 1990 at age 62.   quotes
Northern Irish physicist who has been described as breathing “new and exciting life into the foundations of quantum theory.” In 1964, he mathematically proved “that certain quantum correlations, unlike all other correlations in the Universe, cannot arise from any local cause,” as described in Nature a half-century later.
  F. Sherwood Rowland
 Born 28 Jun 1927; died 10 Mar 2012 at age 84.
Frank Sherwood Rowland was an Armenian chemist who shared the 1995 Nobel Prize for Chemistry with chemists Mario Molina and Paul Crutzen for research on the depletion of the Earth's ozone layer. Working with Molina, Rowland discovered that man-made chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) propellants accelerate the decomposition of the ozonosphere, which protects the Earth from ultraviolet radiation from the sun.
  Robert S. Ledley
Thumbnail -
The first model of the Whole Body Computerized Tomograph used at Georgetown University Hospital 1974-1978.
 Born 28 Jun 1926; died 24 Jul 2012 at age 86.   quotes
American physicist and radiologist who invented the ACTA (Automatic Computerized Transverse Axial) diagnostic X-ray scanner, the first whole-body computerized tomography (CT) machine (U.S. patent no. 3,922,552) which revolutionized medical diagnosis. The ACTA can make a three-dimensional analysis of all organs and parts of the body in a series of cross-section images using thin X-ray beams and high power computer processing of the collected data. Using the ACTA, diagnosis of tumours, infection or bleeding is possible even deep within large organs, and it can give improved radiation therapy for cancer. The framework could be tilted to give results from planes other than vertical.«
Cross-sectional anatomy: An atlas for computerized tomography, by Robert Steven Ledley. - book suggestion.
  Baron von Carl Friedrich Weizs
 Born 28 Jun 1912.
German astronomer.
  Maria Goeppert-Mayer
 Born 28 Jun 1906; died 20 Feb 1972 at age 65.   quotes
German physicist who shared one-half of the 1963 Nobel Prize for Physics with J. Hans D. Jensen of West Germany for their proposal of the shell nuclear model. (The other half of the prize was awarded to Eugene P. Wigner of the United States for unrelated work.) In 1939 she worked at Columbia University on the separation of uranium isotopes for the atomic bomb project. In 1949, she devised the shell nuclear model, which explained the detailed properties of atomic nuclei in terms of a structure of shells occupied by the protons and neutrons. This explained the great stability and abundance of nuclei that have a particular number of neutrons (such as 50, 82, or 126) and the same special number of protons.
Maria Goeppert Mayer, by Joseph P. Ferry. - book suggestion.
  Ashley Montagu
 Born 28 Jun 1905; died 26 Nov 1999 at age 94.   quotes
British anthropologist who is noted for his works popularizing anthropology and science. By working out the embryology of the upper jaw, Montagu enabled surgeons to repair cleft palates. Montagu made contributions in a wide variety of fields, of which his analysis of the concept of race will remain his his most important legacy. The subject interested him from the 1930s and by 1942 he published Man's Most Dangerous Myth; The Fallacy of Race. In 1950, he was asked by UNESCO to frame their statement on race. His fifty books include The Elephant Man, which formed the basis of the play and movie of the same name. Other topics included social factors in crime, home birth and prenatal care, birth order, privacy, smaking and natural foods.«
  Bertram Eugene Warren
 Born 28 Jun 1902.
American crystallographer whose X-ray studies contributed to an understanding of both crystalline and noncrystalline materials and of the transition from the amorphous to the crystalline state.
  Henri-Lιon Lebesgue
 Born 28 Jun 1875; died 26 Jul 1941 at age 66.   quotes
French mathematician who developed a theory of integration, now known by his name. By extending the work of Camille Jordan and Émile Borel on the Riemann integral, Lebesgue provided a generalization that solved many of the difficulties in using Riemann's theory of integration. Lebesque provided a foundation for subsequent development of integration theory and its further application in calculus, curve rectification and theory of trigonometric theory. He also contributed in several fields of mathematics, including set theory, caluclus of variation and function theory.
  Alexis Carrel
 Born 28 Jun 1873; died 5 Nov 1944 at age 71.   quotes
French-American surgeon and biologist who received the 1912 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for developing a method of suturing blood vessels. He moved to the United States in 1905. As a member of the staff of the Rockefeller Institute, he did notable work on the problem of keeping tissue alive after removal from a living organism. The most famous example was a piece of tissue from the heart of a chicken embryo, which was kept alive from 1912 to 1946, at which time the experiment was deliberately ended. Techniques developed by Carrel have made possible the surgical transplantation of blood vessels and body organs.
  Sir Robert Jones
 Born 28 Jun 1857; died 14 Jan 1933 at age 75.
English orthopaedic surgeon who has been called the founder of modern orthopaedic surgery. He was a nephew of Hugh Owen Thomas and became one of his apprentices in Liverpool. On 22 Feb 1896, Jones published the first report of the clinical use of an X-ray to locate a bullet in a wrist, for which equipment was provided by Oliver Lodge. Jones co-founded medical associations, including the British Orthopaedic Society and orthopaedic hospitals. During WWI, he led the orthopaedic section of the British Forces. Jones advocated tendon transplantation, bone grafting, and other conservative, restorative procedures. "Time stood still," it has been said, when Jones operated. He wrote several important books on orthopaedics.« *
The Life of Sir Robert Jones, by Frederick Watson. - book suggestion.
  Richard August carl Emil Erlenmeyer
 Born 28 Jun 1825; died 22 Jan 1909 at age 83.
German chemist.
  Paul Broca
 Born 28 Jun 1824; died 9 Jul 1880 at age 56.   quotes
French surgeon who was closely associated with the development of modern physical anthropology in France and whose study of brain lesions contributed significantly to understanding the origins of aphasia, the loss or impairment of the ability to form or articulate words. His research was largely devoted to the comparative study of the craniums of the various human races. He established (1861) that the seats of articulate speech were in the left frontal region of the brain, now known as the convolution of Broca. This was the first time an anatomical link had been made between a location and in the brain and its function. He founded the anthropology laboratory at the École des Hautes.

Nature bears long with those who wrong her. She is patient under abuse. But when abuse has gone too far, when the time of reckoning finally comes, she is equally slow to be appeased and to turn away her wrath. (1882) -- Nathaniel Egleston, who was writing then about deforestation, but speaks equally well about the danger of climate change today.
Carl Sagan Thumbnail Carl Sagan: In science it often happens that scientists say, 'You know that's a really good argument; my position is mistaken,' and then they would actually change their minds and you never hear that old view from them again. They really do it. It doesn't happen as often as it should, because scientists are human and change is sometimes painful. But it happens every day. I cannot recall the last time something like that happened in politics or religion. (1987) ...(more by Sagan)

Albert Einstein: I used to wonder how it comes about that the electron is negative. Negative-positive—these are perfectly symmetric in physics. There is no reason whatever to prefer one to the other. Then why is the electron negative? I thought about this for a long time and at last all I could think was “It won the fight!” ...(more by Einstein)

Richard Feynman: It is the facts that matter, not the proofs. Physics can progress without the proofs, but we can't go on without the facts ... if the facts are right, then the proofs are a matter of playing around with the algebra correctly. ...(more by Feynman)
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JUNE 28 – DEATHS – Scientists died on June 28th
  Yigael Yadin
 Died 28 Jun 1984 at age 67 (born 21 Mar 1917).
(original name Yigael Sukenik) Israeli archaeologist and military leader noted for his work on the Dead Sea Scrolls. Yadin's fieldwork from the 1950's included Hazor, caves of the Judean Desert, Massada, and Meggido.Yadin's findings have shed light on various periods of ancient Israel, such as the Canaanite, First Temple, and Herodian periods, as well as the Bar Kokhba revolt. He made a famous contribution decoding and interpreting several scrolls from the Dead Sea and the Judean Desert. In 1963-5, he excavated at Masada, the ancient mountaintop fortress ruins in the desert about 48.3 km (30 mi) southeast of Jerusalem, the scene of the last stand made by the Jewish Zealots in their revolt against Roman rule (66-73 AD).
A Prophet from Amongst You: The Life of Yigael Yadin, by Neil Asher Silberman. . - book suggestion.
Booklist for Yigael Yadin.
  Vannevar Bush
 Died 28 Jun 1974 at age 84 (born 11 Mar 1890).   quotes
American electrical engineer who oversaw government mobilization of scientific research during World War II. At the age of 35, in 1925, he developed the differential analyzer, the world's first analog computer. It was capable of solving differential equations. He put into concrete form that which began 50 years earlier with the incomplete efforts of Charles Babbage, and the theoretical details developed by Lord Kelvin. This machine filled a 20 x 30 foot room. He innovated one of the largest growing media in our time, namely hypermedia as fulfilled in the Internet with hypertext links.
  Prasanta Mahalanobis
 Died 28 Jun 1972 at age 78 (born 29 Jun 1893).   quotes
Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis was an Indian statistician who set up large-scale surveys, applied statistical theory and created institutions to carry out such work. He studied physics and mathematics at the University of Cambridge, and became  interested in statistics. He returned to India in 1915. Although he began a teaching career in physics, he turned to statistics in applications of anthropology, meteorology and biology. He established the Indian Statistical Institute in Calcutta (17 Dec 1931). The Mahalanobis distance was his innovation in statistics to compare two data sets. He also devised fractile graphical analysis to study socioeconomic conditions. He applied statistics to issues of crop yields and planning for flood control.«
  Robert Porter Allen
 Died 28 Jun 1963 at age 58 (born 24 Apr 1905).
American author and conservationist recognized for saving the whooping crane from extinction by discovering (1955) the nesting ground of the sole remaining flock near the Arctic Circle. He was a leader in having whooping crane habitats in Texas and Canada proclaimed as refuges. He helped establish a working protective plan for flamingos and recommended methods of saving the small surviving colonies of roseate spoonbills, thus helping to perpetuate the species. His monographs on the whooping crane, the roseate spoonbill, and the American flamingo are the standard authoritative works on these species. [Listen to the whooping crane call]
The Whooping Crane (Research report of the National Audubon Society), by Robert Porter Allen. - book suggestion.
Booklist for Robert Porter Allen.
  Sir John Isaac Thornycroft
 Died 28 Jun 1928 at age 85 (born 1 Feb 1843).
English naval architect and engineer who founded the Thornycroft shipbuilding company, in 1864 with a shipyard on the River Thames. He was only 19 when he built his first steam launch. By 1877, he built the first modern torpedo boat for the Royal Navy. In 1877, he patented an air-lubricated hull that could skim, rather than cut through, the water. He also designed water-tube boilers for torpedo boats as well as one of the earliest ship stabilizers. During WW I, he built warships including 29 destroyers and flotilla leaders, 3 submarines and coastal torpedo speedboats, which could skim over minefields. He pioneered the use of oil fuel for the Royal Navy. Steam powered lorries were a manufacturing off-shoot of his shipyard (1896) which led to a major new business building petrol-engined lorries (from 1902).« [Image: Detail from a Vanity Fair caricature, 1905.]
  Hermann M. Biggs
 Died 28 Jun 1923 at age 63 (born 29 Sep 1859).   quotes
American physician who pioneered the use of bacteriological studies in the field of public health for the prevention and control of contagious diseases. From 1884 he learnt about current advances in bacteriology by visiting Europe. In 1892, he was appointed the first director of a new Division of Pathology, Bacteriology and Disinfection within the New York City Department of Health - the first municipal bacteriological laboratory in the U.S. - to address the scare of cholera from immigrants arriving at the harbour. He became general medical officer of New York City (1901) and then commissioner of health for the state of New York (1914). The measures he developed for public health spread through the nation.   more
Childhood's Deadly Scourge: The Campaign to Control Diphtheria in New York City, 1880-1930, by Evelynn Maxine Hammonds. - book suggestion.
  Maria Mitchell
 Died 28 Jun 1889 at age 70 (born 1 Aug 1818).
American astronomer who was the first professional woman in the field in the United States. While pursuing an amateur interest, on 1 Oct 1847, she gained fame from the observation of a comet which she was first to report. She was also the first female member of the American Association of Arts and Sciences.
Maria Mitchell: A Life in Journals and Letters, by Henry Albers. - book suggestion.
  Wilhelm Hisinger
 Died 28 Jun 1852 at age 85 (born 23 Dec 1766).
Swedish mineralogist who inherited his father's iron works, and pursued science privately. From one of his iron mines at Bastnäs came a mineral of unusually high density. Hisinger distributed samples to several European chemical analysts. After his examination in 1803, Martin Klaproth suspected it held a new element. That year, both Hisinger and Jöns Berzelius isolated the new element. They named it cerium in recognition of Giussepe Piazzi's discovery of the new minor plant, Ceres, two years earlier (1 Jan 1801). In 1806, Hisinger investigated electricity's effect on salt solutions. He contributed to the geological knowledge of his country, and recorded finds of its animal and plant fossils. He also amassed fine rock, mineral and fossil collections, which he eventually gave to the Swedish natural history museum.«
  George Hadley
 Died 28 Jun 1768 at age 83 (born 12 Feb 1685).
English physicist and meteorologist who first formulated an accurate theory describing the trade winds and the associated meridional circulation pattern now known as the Hadley cell.

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JUNE 28 – EVENTS – Science events on June 28th
  Liver transplant
Thumbnail - Liver transplant
Dr. Fung
  In 1992, a 35-year-old man at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center became the world's first recipient of a baboon liver transplant. Dr. John Fung with colleagues Drs. Andreas Tzakis and Satoru Todo performed the transplant operation. The patient was dying from hepatitis B. Although the patient died from a brain hemorrhage 71 days after the historic surgery, the field of xenotransplantation, or cross-species transplantation, was advanced considerably. A second xenotransplant operation was made on 10 Jan 1993 on a 62-year-old man who lived 26 days with the baboon's liver. No further xenotransplants are currently planned there, but xenotransplantation research remains a major focus of investigation at the university.
  In 1965, the first commerical telephone conversation over a satellite took place over Early Bird I between America and Europe. It had capacity for 240 voice circuits or one black and white TV channel. Positioned to serve the Atlantic Ocean region, Early Bird provided commercial communications service between North America and Western Europe. It exceeded its 18 months designed in-orbit life by 2 additional years. (It was later renamed as Intelsat I.) By 1 Jul 1969, three Intelsat satellites in geostationary orbit provided full global coverage. Only 19 days after Intelsat III became operational, Neil Armstrong and the Apollo 11 crew made their historic first landing on the moon, watched by 500 million people back on Earth.
  Polio vaccine
  In 1961, the American Medical Association backed the Sabin polio vaccine over the Salk vaccine. In 1957, in an effort to improve upon the killed Salk vaccine, Albert Bruce Sabin began testing a live, oral form of vaccine in which the infectious part of the virus was inactivated (attenuated). This vaccine became available for use in 1963. The Sabin oral vaccine is often administered on a sugar cube. The advantages of a live, oral vaccine are its long-lasting immunity, and the lower cost because sterile syringes and needles are not necessary. A major disadvantage is that it cannot be used for patients with compromised immune systems because it is a live virus and can cause disease in these patients.
  Mackinac Bridge
Thumbnail - Mackinac Bridge
  In 1958, the Mackinac Bridge was dedicated, the world longest suspension bridge to date. Celebration began on 24 Jun with the first “Governor’s Walk” across it. The bridge had been opened to traffic on 1 Nov 1957, joining Michigan’s upper and lower peninsulas and reducing travel time from about 2 hours to 10 minutes. Groundbreaking ceremonies took place at the St. Ignace end of the bridge on 7 May 1954, and the next day on the opposite shore at Mackinaw City. Meanwhile caissons and superstructures were assembled as far away as Indiana, Pennsylvania and Ohio. The total length, with approaches is 8038 m (26,372 ft), with 34 bridge support foundations. The main span is 1158 m (3,800 ft) long between towers.
Miracle Bridge at Mackinac, by David B. Steinman. - book suggestion.
Booklist for Mackinac Bridge.
  Atomic reactor
  In 1956, the first atomic reactor built for private research began operations in Chicago, Ill.
  Aerial tramway
  In 1938, an aerial tramway, the first in North America, was dedicated in Franconia, N.H. The tramway was built to lift skiers from Franconia Notch to the 4,200-foot summit of Cannon Mountain on the north face. In 1933, the Richard Taft Trail was cut on the north face of Cannon. This was popular with the Boston-area ski clubs. The state of New Hampshire decided in the late 1930's to build an aerial tramway that would serve the Taft and its sister trails. The site was chosen, in part, because sufficient electric power was already in place in Franconia Notch. The tramway's wooden cabins held 28 skiers. The present tram, constructed in 1982, carries 70 skiers. The area is owned and operated by the state of New Hampshire.
  Virus crystallized
  In 1935, the first virus in crystalline form was reported. Professor Wendell Stanley (1904-1971) received a Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1946 for his work on the tobacco mosaic virus, begun in the 1930s and which he crystallized in 1935. The demonstration of the molecular properties of the virus gave impetus to a new research approach in virology: the study of viruses as large molecules. This was a departure from the predominant view of viruses as infectious agents causing disease.
  Rocket mail
  In 1928, Austrian Friedrich Schmiedl launched his first experimental rocket. The design he first used was not successful. However, by 9 Sep1931, he started the world's first official postal rocket-mail service between two Austrian towns. A parachute provided a safe landing. His rocket-mail service continued until 16 Mar 1933 when laws prohibited the civilian use of explosives (including his rocket fuel.)
  East River Gas Tunnel Start
  In 1892, work began on the East River Gas Tunnel under the East River, New York City, from the Long Island side. The New York end was started 10 Jul 1892. When both ends met, 11 Jul 1894, it became the first completed tunnel under the East River. (The East River was spanned by the Brooklyn Bridge that opened on 24 May 1883.) The 2550-ft tunnel was 8½-ft high by 10½-ft wide, smaller than one for public vehicle traffic, because it was intended for several gas mains. Illuminating gas from the works on Long Island could thus be distributed to Manhattan, which began on 15 Oct 1894. The tunnelling success also provided knowledge of local conditions and significant difficulties encountered, enabling future  tunnels under the East River wherever needed. Work on four railroad tunnels commenced in 1904.«
Thumbnail - Fluorine
  In 1886, Henri Moissan's discovery of fluorine gas was announced at the Paris Academy of Science, two days after his first successful experiment to isolate the element, which he tested with silicon to find it burst into flame. “One can indeed make various hypotheses on the nature of the liberated gas; the simplest would be that we are in the presence of fluorine, but it would be possible, of course, that it might be a perfluoride of hydrogen, or even a mixture of hydrofluoric acid and ozone sufficiently active to explain such vigorous action as this gas exerts on crystalline silicon.” This conservative announcement was read to the Academy by Debray, for Moissan was not then a member. The president appointed a committee to check the discovery. *
  In 1832, the first American case of a cholera epidemic was reported in New York City. Previously, Europe and the Americas were unaffected by the First Cholera Pandemic of 1817 when cholera, long endemic to the Indian subcontinent, spread to Arabia, Syria, and southern Russia. This abated in the early 1820's, but a new cholera cycle began in 1826. It invaded the British Isles in Oct 1831. Canada was struck shortly before cholera reached New York. Cholera was a horrible disease, spread through fouled water. Its victims died after hours of cramps, diarrhea, and vomiting. Crowded into unsanitary slums, the poor suffered most. Many of the city's elite fled to the countryside. In America, the disease's hold broke by Dec 1832. [Image: Detail from an 1883 wood engraving in Life Magazine; the spectre of "cholera" floats across the ocean from Europe.]

- 100 -
Sophie Germain
Gertrude Elion
Ernest Rutherford
James Chadwick
Marcel Proust
William Harvey
Johann Goethe
John Keynes
Carl Gauss
Paul Feyerabend
- 90 -
Antoine Lavoisier
Lise Meitner
Charles Babbage
Ibn Khaldun
Ralph Emerson
Robert Bunsen
Frederick Banting
Andre Ampere
Winston Churchill
- 80 -
John Locke
Bronislaw Malinowski
Thomas Huxley
Alessandro Volta
Erwin Schrodinger
Wilhelm Roentgen
Louis Pasteur
Bertrand Russell
Jean Lamarck
- 70 -
Samuel Morse
John Wheeler
Nicolaus Copernicus
Robert Fulton
Pierre Laplace
Humphry Davy
Thomas Edison
Lord Kelvin
Theodore Roosevelt
Carolus Linnaeus
- 60 -
Francis Galton
Linus Pauling
Immanuel Kant
Martin Fischer
Robert Boyle
Karl Popper
Paul Dirac
James Watson
William Shakespeare
- 50 -
Stephen Hawking
Niels Bohr
Nikola Tesla
Rachel Carson
Max Planck
Henry Adams
Richard Dawkins
Werner Heisenberg
Alfred Wegener
John Dalton
- 40 -
Pierre Fermat
Edward Wilson
Johannes Kepler
Gustave Eiffel
Giordano Bruno
JJ Thomson
Thomas Kuhn
Leonardo DaVinci
David Hume
- 30 -
Andreas Vesalius
Rudolf Virchow
Richard Feynman
James Hutton
Alexander Fleming
Emile Durkheim
Benjamin Franklin
Robert Oppenheimer
Robert Hooke
Charles Kettering
- 20 -
Carl Sagan
James Maxwell
Marie Curie
Rene Descartes
Francis Crick
Michael Faraday
Srinivasa Ramanujan
Francis Bacon
Galileo Galilei
- 10 -
John Watson
Rosalind Franklin
Michio Kaku
Isaac Asimov
Charles Darwin
Sigmund Freud
Albert Einstein
Florence Nightingale
Isaac Newton

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