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Today in Science History - Quickie Quiz
Who said: “A people without children would face a hopeless future; a country without trees is almost as helpless.”
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JULY 23 – BIRTHS – Scientists born on July 23rd
  Mark David Weiser
 Born 23 Jul 1952; died 27 Apr 1999 at age 46.   quotes
American computer scientist and visionary who was the chief technology officer at XEROX PARC, and is remembered for developed the pioneering idea for what he referred to as “ubiquitous computing.” He coined that term in 1988 to describe a future in which personal computers will be replaced with tiny computers embedded in everyday “smart” devices (everyday items such as coffeepots and copy machines) and their connection via a network. He said, “First were mainframes, each shared by lots of people. Now we are in the personal computing era, person and machine staring uneasily at each other across the desktop. Next comes ubiquitous computing, or the age of calm technology, when technology recedes into the background of our lives.” He died at age 46, only six weeks after being diagnosed as having gastric cancer.«
  Chushiro Hayashi
 Born 23 Jul 1920.
Japanese astrophysicist who with his coworkers created evolutionary models for stars of mass between 0.01 to 100 times that of the Sun. In 1950, he contributed to the abg (Alpher, Bethe, Gamow) model of nucleosynthesis in the hot big bang. Hayashi pioneered in modeling stellar formation and pre-main sequence evolution along "Hayashi tracks" (1961) downward on the Hertzprung-Russell diagram until stars reach the main sequence. He and Takenori Nakano studied the formation of low-mass, brown dwarf stars. Hayashi also investigated the formation of the solar system and of the earth and its atmosphere. He retired in 1984. He was presented the Bruce Medal in 2004 for lifetime contributions to astronomy.«
  Marston Bates
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 Born 23 Jul 1906; died 3 Apr 1974 at age 67.   quotes
Drell Marston Bates was an American zoologist and writer who studied mosquitoes and tropical diseases for the Rockefeller Foundation with fieldwork in Albania, Egypt and Colombia (1937-50). Rockefeller scientists reduced the problem of yellow fever in Colombia, where Bates supervised researchers who worked with local doctors in diagnoses and treatment, studied the region's forests and swamps in the area, and tested insects suspected as disease carriers. His first book, The Natural History of Mosquitoes (1949) was followed by more natural history books for laymen including The Nature of Natural History (1950) which showed his love of the tropics. As an environmental activist, he believed even the government should respect the earth's environment.«
The Nature of Natural History, by Marston Bates. - book suggestion.
Booklist for author Marston Bates.
  Vladimir Prelog
 Born 23 Jul 1906; died 7 Jan 1998 at age 91.
Yugoslavian-Swiss chemist who shared the 1975 Nobel Prize for Chemistry with John W. Cornforth for his work on the stereochemistry of organic molecules and reactions. Stereochemistry is the study of the three-dimensional arrangements of atoms within molecules. He authored systematic naming rules for molecules and their mirror-image version, that is, which configuration will be referred to as “dextra” and which will be the “levo” (right or left). Also, by X-ray diffraction, he elucidated the structure of several antibiotics.
Vladimir Prelog: My 132 Semesters of Studies of Chemistry, by Vladimir Prelog. - book suggestion.
  Theodore Christian Schneirla
 Born 23 Jul 1902; died 20 Aug 1968 at age 66.
Theodore Christian Schneirla was the foremost American comparative psychologist of the mid-1900's (the American Museum of Natural History) whose empirical work was based on observations on the behaviour patterns of army ants. He went so far in his "biphasic A-W theory" as to reduce all behavior to two simple responses: approach and withdrawal. We approach what causes pleasure, and we withdraw from what causes unpleasure or pain. His Principles of Animal Psychology (1935, with N. R. F. Maier) was the leading text in its field.
  Walter Schottky
 Born 23 Jul 1886; died 4 Mar 1976 at age 89.
Swiss-born German physicist whose research in solid-state physics led to development of a number of electronic devices. He discovered the Schottky effect, an irregularity in the emission of thermions in a vacuum tube and invented the screen-grid tetrode tube (1915). The Schottky diode is a high speed diode with very little junction capacitance (also known as a "hot-carrier diode" or a "surface-barrier diode.") It uses a metal-semiconductor junction as a Schottky barrier, rather than the semiconductor-semiconductor junction of a conventional diode.«
  Sir Arthur Whitten Brown
 Born 23 Jul 1886; died 4 Oct 1948 at age 62.
Scottish aviator, who was navigator with pilot Capt. John W. Alcock completed the first nonstop airplane crossing of the Atlantic, on 15 Jun 1919, in a Vickers Vimy, named after a battle in WW I. Brown began his career in engineering before the outbreak of WW I. Like Alcock, Brown also became a prisoner of war, after being shot down over Germany. Once released, Brown continued to develop his aerial navigation skills. While visiting the engineering firm of Vickers he was asked if he would be the navigator for the proposed transatlantic flight. By joining forces with the firm Vickers, Alcock and Brown entered a competition for the first direct transatlantic flight, set up by the Daily Mail newspaper, with a prize of ten thousand pounds.
  Griffith Brewer
 Born 23 Jul 1867; died 1 Mar 1948 at age 80.
Edward Griffith Brewer was an English lawyer, balloonist and aviator who was the first Englishman to fly in an airplane (though as a passenger). Brewer was a patent attorney, who had been making aerial ascents since 1891 as a ballonist. In 1908, he met  Wilbur Wright who was giving flying exhibitions in France. Wilbur took Brewer on a short airplane ride, which prompted Brewer to ask about taking flying instruction some time later. They established a lifetime friendship, and Brewer made many visits to Wright's home in Dayton. Meanwhile, Langley—the director of the Smithsonian Institution—was claiming to have had his own Great Aerodrome capable of flight before the Wrights. Brewer staunchly supported the Wrights by writing to the New York Times, and lecturing to the Royal Society in England. He suggested the 1903 Wright Flyer be exhibited at the Science Museum. in London.«   more
  Bal Gangadhar Tilak
 Born 23 Jul 1856; died 1 Aug 1920 at age 64.
Indian scholar, mathematician, philosopher, and militant nationalist who helped lay the foundation for India's independence. Tilak was a great Sanskrit scholar and astronomer. He fixed the origin and date of Rigvedic Aryans, which was highly acclaimed and universally accepted by orientalists of his time. He founded (1914) and served as president of the Indian Home Rule League and, in 1916, concluded the Lucknow Pact with Mohammed Ali Jinnah, which provided for Hindu-Muslim unity in the struggle for independence.
  Sir Jonathan Hutchinson
 Born 23 Jul 1828; died 26 Jun 1913 at age 84.
English surgeon and pathologist who made a lifelong study of congenital syphilis. He was surgeon at the London hospital (1859-83) and professor of surgery at the Royal College of Surgeons (1879-83). He recorded observations made during his vast clinical experience in over 1,200 medical articles. His name remains associated with a number of medical terms, including Hutchinson's triad (the three symptoms of congenital syphilis which he first described.) He was first to identify a certain inflammatory disease, then known as "Hutchinson's disease"), but now known as sarcoidosis, as named by the Norwegian dermatologist Cæsar Peter Møller Boeck (1845-1917). Hutchinson was knighted in 1908.«
  Sir Thomas Brisbane
 Born 23 Jul 1773; died 27 Jan 1860 at age 86.
Sir Thomas Makdougall Brisbane was a British soldier and astronomical observer, Baronet British soldier and astronomical observer for whom the city of Brisbane, Australia, is named. He was Governor of NSW (1821-25). Mainly remembered as a patron of science, he built an astronomical observatory at Parramatta, Australia, made the first extensive observations of the southern stars since Lacaille in (1751-52) and built a combined observatory and magnetic station at Makerstoun, Roxburghshire, Scotland. He also conducted (largely unsuccessful) experiments in growing Virginian tobacco, Georgian cotton, Brazilian coffee and New Zealand flax.

Nature bears long with those who wrong her. She is patient under abuse. But when abuse has gone too far, when the time of reckoning finally comes, she is equally slow to be appeased and to turn away her wrath. (1882) -- Nathaniel Egleston, who was writing then about deforestation, but speaks equally well about the danger of climate change today.
Carl Sagan Thumbnail Carl Sagan: In science it often happens that scientists say, 'You know that's a really good argument; my position is mistaken,' and then they would actually change their minds and you never hear that old view from them again. They really do it. It doesn't happen as often as it should, because scientists are human and change is sometimes painful. But it happens every day. I cannot recall the last time something like that happened in politics or religion. (1987) ...(more by Sagan)

Albert Einstein: I used to wonder how it comes about that the electron is negative. Negative-positive—these are perfectly symmetric in physics. There is no reason whatever to prefer one to the other. Then why is the electron negative? I thought about this for a long time and at last all I could think was “It won the fight!” ...(more by Einstein)

Richard Feynman: It is the facts that matter, not the proofs. Physics can progress without the proofs, but we can't go on without the facts ... if the facts are right, then the proofs are a matter of playing around with the algebra correctly. ...(more by Feynman)
Quotations by: • Albert Einstein • Isaac Newton • Lord Kelvin • Charles Darwin • Srinivasa Ramanujan • Carl Sagan • Florence Nightingale • Thomas Edison • Aristotle • Marie Curie • Benjamin Franklin • Winston Churchill • Galileo Galilei • Sigmund Freud • Robert Bunsen • Louis Pasteur • Theodore Roosevelt • Abraham Lincoln • Ronald Reagan • Leonardo DaVinci • Michio Kaku • Karl Popper • Johann Goethe • Robert Oppenheimer • Charles Kettering  ... (more people)

Quotations about: • Atomic  Bomb • Biology • Chemistry • Deforestation • Engineering • Anatomy • Astronomy • Bacteria • Biochemistry • Botany • Conservation • Dinosaur • Environment • Fractal • Genetics • Geology • History of Science • Invention • Jupiter • Knowledge • Love • Mathematics • Measurement • Medicine • Natural Resource • Organic Chemistry • Physics • Physician • Quantum Theory • Research • Science and Art • Teacher • Technology • Universe • Volcano • Virus • Wind Power • Women Scientists • X-Rays • Youth • Zoology  ... (more topics)
JULY 23 – DEATHS – Scientists died on July 23rd
  Sally Ride
 Died 23 Jul 2012 at age 61 (born 26 May 1951).   quotes
American astronaut who became the first American woman to orbit the earth when she flew aboard Space Shuttle Challenger on 18 Jun 1983. Only two women preceded her in space: Valentina Tereshkova (1963) and Svetlana Savitskaya (1982), both from the former Soviet Union. Ride applied to the astronaut program after reading an ad in a newspaper. Out of 8,000 applicants to the space program that year, 35 individuals were selected including six women. Accepted into the astronaut corps in 1978, she completed her training as a mission specialist in 1979, and flew on two missions with Challenger, the second in 1984. Dr. Ride, a Ph.D. physicist, was a member of the team chosen to investigate the 1986 explosion of Challenger.
  Harvey Fletcher
 Died 23 Jul 1981 at age 96 (born 11 Sep 1884).
American acoustical engineer who was the first to demonstrate stereophonic sound (1934). He was a trail blazing investigator of the nature of speech and hearing, noted for his contributions in acoustics, electrical engineering, speech, medicine, music, atomic physics, sound pictures, and education. He guided the development of the Western Electric Hearing Aid, the first such device to use vacuum tubes. He developed a group survey method using recorded sound of decreasing volume which has wide acceptance in schools throughout the nation.
  Sir Henry Dale
 Died 23 Jul 1968 at age 93 (born 9 Jun 1875).   quotes
Sir Henry Hallett Dale was an English biologist and physiologist who isolated (1914) the neurotransmitter acetylcholine from ergot fungi. In 1936 he shared the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine (with the German pharmacologist Otto Loewi) for discoveries in the chemical transmission of nerve impulses. Otto Loewi had shown that a substance released by electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve was responsible for effecting changes in heartbeat. Following up this work, Dale showed that the substance is in fact acetylcholine, thus establishing that chemical as well as electrical stimuli are involved in nerve action. He also worked on the properties of histamine and related substances, including their actions in allergic and anaphylactic conditions.
  Baron Gerard de Geer
 Died 23 Jul 1943 at age 84 (born 2 Oct 1858).
Gerhard (Jakob), Friherre De Geer (Baron) was a Swedish geologist, originator of the varve-counting method used in geochronology. A varve is a seasonal coarse-fine layer of clay deposited in still water.The layers were produced by the annual melt-water sequence with rapid melting and discharge in summer depositing coarse sediments, versus slow settling of fine-grained material during the winter months. The method he devised of counting of layers in glaciers was good for dating back to 18,000 years. Although only accurate to that time, it was useful for studies of the Ice Age. Image: In 1920 De Geer visited the United States to study the varves of New England; he is shown sampling varves at the Essex locality.
  Valdemar Poulsen
 Died 23 Jul 1942 at age 72 (born 23 Nov 1869).
Danish engineer who in 1903 developed the first device for generating continuous radio waves, thus aiding the development of radio broadcasting. His arc transmitter increased the frequency range of Duddell's Singing Arc (1900) from the audio range to radio waves, enabling speech to be transmitted up to a radius of 150 miles. By 1920 the Poulsen Arc transmitter was as powerful as 1000kW with ranges of up to 2,500 miles. An earlier invention was the Telegraphone, for which he filed a patent in Denmark on 1 Dec 1898. This was the first device in history to use magnetic sound recording, although this invention remained commercially impractical due to low sound output until the advent of vacuum tube amplifiers in the 1930s. [Biog. Dict. of the Hist. of Tech. gives date of death 23 Jul 1942. DSB and EB give Jul 1942.]
  Alberto Santos-Dumont
 Died 23 Jul 1932 at age 59 (born 20 Jul 1873).
Brazilian aeronaut who was an aviation pioneer, deemed the Father of Aviation by his countrymen. At the age of 18, Santos-Dumont was sent by his father to Paris where he devoted his time to the study of chemistry, physics, astronomy and mechanics. His first spherical balloon made its first ascension in Paris on 4 July 1898. He developed steering capabilities, and in his sixth dirigible on 19 Oct 1901 won the “Deutsch Prize,” awarded to the balloonist who circumnavigated the Eiffel Tower. He turned to heavier-than-air flight, and on 12 Nov 1906 his 14-BIS airplane flew a distance of 220 meters, height of 6 m. and speed of 37 km/h. to win the “Archdecon Prize.” In 1909, he produced his famous Demoiselle or Grasshopper monoplanes, the forerunners of the modern light plane.
Wings of Madness: Alberto Santos-Dumont and the Invention of Flight, by Paul Hoffman. - book suggestion.
  Glenn Curtiss
 Died 23 Jul 1930 at age 52 (born 21 May 1878).
Glenn Hammond Curtiss was an American aircraft manufacturer who was a pioneer in the development of U.S. aviation. His aircraft were widely used during World War I. That the brother Orville and Wilbur Wright made the first powered flights has generally been accepted, but the achievements of Curtiss spanned several decades and took the airplane from its wood, fabric and wire beginnings to the forerunners of modern transport aircraft. Curtiss made his first flight on his 30th birthday, 21 May 1908, in White Wing, a design of the Aerial Experiment Association, a group led by Alexander Graham Bell. White Wing was the first plane in America to be controlled by ailerons instead of the wing-warping used by the Wrights. It was also the first plane on wheels in the U.S.
  Sir William Ramsay
 Died 23 Jul 1916 at age 63 (born 2 Oct 1852).   quotes
Scottish chemist who discovered who discovered neon, krypton and xenon and co-discovered argon, radon, calcium and barium. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1904, “in recognition of his services in the discovery of the inert gaseous elements in air, and his determination of their place in the periodic system.” The so-called “inert gases” are now known as “noble gases” because some examples of reactions have been discovered.   more
A Life of Sir William Ramsay, by Morris W. Travers. - book suggestion.
  Sir John Simon
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EB/BBC Hulton Library
 Died 23 Jul 1904 at age 87 (born 10 Oct 1816).
English pathologist, whose sanitary reforms led to modern standards of public health. In 1850, Simon joined with the new Epidemiological Society, which in 1853 published a report which was submitted to Parliament, calling for compulsory smallpox vaccination of all infants. He also recognized that outside and home employment of mothers is a factor in infant mortality; in 1856 he stated that "infants perish under the neglect and mismanagement that their mothers' occupation implies." With the passing of the Public Health Act of 1848, local boards of health were set up, responsible for drainage, paving, cleansing and an ample supply of water. Simon described the improvements in English Sanitary Institutions, 1890. He was knighted in 1887.
  George Perkins Marsh
 Died 23 Jul 1882 at age 81 (born 15 Mar 1801).   quotes
American conservationist, whose book Man and Nature, or Physical Geography as Modified by Human Action (1864) was one of the 19th century's classic influences on geography, ecology, and resource management. Marsh demonstrated a remarkably wide range expertise in philology, etymology, the study of reptiles, engravings, music, the artificial propagation of fish, comparative grammar, physiognomy, and geography. Lewis Mumford was called "the fountain- head of the conservation movement" by Lewis Mumford. In his extensive touring of the Mediterranean world, Marsh became convinced that human civilization had remade the natural world but reshaped the face of nature with disastrous consequences.   more
George Perkins Marsh, Prophet of Conservation, by David Lowenthal. - book suggestion.
Booklist for George Perkins Marsh.
  Baron Karl Rokitansky
 Died 23 Jul 1878 at age 74 (born 19 Feb 1804).
Austrian pathologist whose contributions helped to establish pathology as a recognised science. He is one of the greatest descriptive pathologists, and he himself performed more than 30,000 autopsies, averaging two a day, seven days a week, for 45 years. Rokitansky developed a method of removing the body organs all at once. Thus, the heart, liver, kidneys, urinary bladder, and other organs remained in one block and then dissected on the autopsy table, apart. This permited instruction of medical students by showing all the different organs in the same relationships they had inside the body. He supported Semmelweis, his student, in the controversy over using aseptical methods to prevent contact infection carried on a physician's hands.«
  Joseph Rogers Brown
 Died 23 Jul 1876 at age 66 (born 26 Jan 1810).
American inventor and manufacturer who made numerous advances in the field of fine measurement and machine-tool production. He perfected and produced a highly accurate linear dividing engine in 1850, and in the succeeding two years he developed a vernier caliper reading to thousandths of an inch and also applied vernier methods to the protractor. Brown's micrometer caliper, widely used in industry, appeared in 1867. He also invented a precision gear cutter in 1855 to produce clock gears, a universal milling machine in 1862, and, perhaps his finest innovation, a universal grinding machine (patented in 1877), in which articles were hardened first and then ground, thereby increasing accuracy and eliminating waste. Cofounded J.R. Brown & Sharpe in 1853. [Image: Brown's universal milling machine]
  Isaac Merrit Singer
 Died 23 Jul 1875 at age 63 (born 27 Oct 1811).
American inventor of a practical sewing machine. While an actor, he invented an excavator (1839) and a wood carver (1849) before he turned itinerant mechanic and improved the sewing machine. His first sewing machine patent, issued 12 Aug 1851 (U.S. No. 8294), had a rocking treadle design, continuous feed, and a straight, vertical needle like modern machines. He settled with Elias Howe for infringement of his prior (1846) sewing machine patent. The company Singer then founded (1856) was, within the decade, the world's largest sewing machine manufacturer. His biggest invention was a new way of marketing to consumers. He spent lavishly on advertising, pioneered affordable purchase by installment credit, and provided after-sale service. In 1863, he retired, with 12 more patents on his machines.«
Singer and the Sewing Machine: A Capitalist Romance, by Ruth Brandon. - book suggestion.

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JULY 23 – EVENTS – Science events on July 23rd
  World record hailstone
  In 2010, the world's record heaviest hailstone fell in Vivian, South Dakota weighing 1-lb 15-oz, (0.88 kg) and size 8.0-in (20 cm) diam., 18.6-in (47.3 cm) circumference. It broke the former U.S. record set on 3 Sep 1970 in Coffeyville, Kansas, weight 1-lb 11-oz (0.77 kg) with 5.7-in (14.7 cm) diameter. The U.S. record for circumference still held from the 22 Jun 2003 hailstorm in Aurora, Nebraska, when a hailstone was found about 7-in (17.8 cm) diam. and 18.75-in (46.6 cm) circumference. A larger hailstone is said to have fallen on 14 Apr 1986 that weighed 2-lb 4-oz (1.02 kg) during a hailstorm in Bangladesh that killed 92 people.«
  Cloned mice
  In 1998, in the 23 July issue of the science journal, Nature, an international team of scientists led by Ryuzo Yanagimachi of the University of Hawaii, announced they had accomplished the first reproducible cloning of a mammal from adult cells to produce three generations of cloned mice, more than 50 identical sisters in all. The cloning technique was said to be more reliable than the one used to create Dolly the sheep. Their “Honolulu technique” affords the researchers greater ability to manipulate the adult donor nucleus. This ability will have application industry-wide in increasing the study of the role genes play in aging and the disease processes. Image: Two-cell mouse embryo.
  Inventure Place
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  In 1995, Inventure Place, home of the National Inventors Hall of Fame, opened in Akron, Ohio.
  Genetically altered vaccine approved
Thumbnail - Genetically altered vaccine approved
  In 1986, the FDA licensed production of a new Hepatitis B vaccine - the first recombinant DNA (genetically altered) vaccine - by Merck & Co., marketed as RecombivaxHB. This superceded the old method of making Hepatitis B vaccines from blood taken from human chronic hepatitis B virus carriers.
  Three Mile Island Unit 2 re-entered
  In 1980, the first human re-entry was made into the Three Mile Island Unit-2 containment building since shutdown after the 28 Mar 1979 accident, when the core of the nuclear power plant lost water coolant and began a partial melt-down incident.
Three Mile Island: A Nuclear Crisis in Historical Perspective, by J. Samuel Walker. - book suggestion.
  World aircraft speed record
  In 1956, Bell X-2 rocket plane sets world aircraft speed record of 3,050 kph. The X-2 was a swept-wing, rocket-powered research aircraft used to investigate the problems of aerodynamic heating, stability, and control effectiveness at high speeds and altitudes. The X-2 was carried to launch altitude by a Boeing B-50, and then released. Lt. Col. Frank "Pete" Everest piloted this ninth powered flight and reached Mach 2.87. (Later that year, on 27 Sep 1956, its 13th powered flight by Capt M. Apt reached Mach 3.2. The flight ended with loss of control, a crash, and the death of the pilot.) Image: X-2 on ramp with B-50 mothership and support crew.
  Pituitary hormone
  In 1937, the successful isolation of the first of the protein pituitary hormones was published in Science journal. Bovine prolactin (bPRL), the lactogenic hormone, was obtained in pure crystalline form by three doctors at the Yale University School of Medicine. This meticulous, time-consuming work by A. White, H.R. Catchpole and C.N.H. Long was done long before the availability of modern chromatographic methods of analysis and purification. The peanut-sized pituitary gland at the base of the brain is the master endocrine gland in vertebrate animals. Different pituitary hormones control the functioning of most of the body's endocrine glands, stimulate growth and control the water balance of the body. Prolactin was first named for its ability to promote milk production in response to the suckling stimulus of hungry young mammals.« [Ref: White, A., Catchpole, H.R. and Long, C.N.H., 'A crystalline protein with high lactogenic activity', Science (23 Jul 1937), 86, 82-83.]
  Ice cream cone
  In 1904, by some narratives, the edible ice cream cone was first sold by Charles E. Menches of Akron, Ohio, at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition (St. Louis World's Fair). He was a vendor on The Ten Million Dollar Pike, a 90-ft-wide, mile-long, brick-paved midway full of extravagant attractions, rides, amusements and food stands. Although Menches is often named as the first to serve his ice cream in a rolled waffle cone, its true originator is far from clear. The edible cone was widely sold at the fair, and various other people there are also claimed as the innovator. In 1903,  Italo Marchiony held a  U.S. patent (No. 746,971) for a mold to bake ice cream cups. By 8 Jun 1909 Mendes held his own patent (U.S. No. 924484) for a “Baking Iron for Ice-Cream Cones” using batter to make flat circular waffles to form into cones.«
  First Ford sold
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  In 1903, in Detroit, the Ford Motor Company sold its first automobile, the Ford Model A. It featured a twin-cylinder internal combustion engine designed and manufactured by then little-known Michigan machinist, Henry Ford. It was assembled at the Mack Avenue plant in Detroit.
My Life and Work, by Henry Ford. - book suggestion.
Booklist for Henry Ford.
  Dunlop tire patent
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  In 1888, Scottish vetenerian, John Boyd Dunlop, applied to patent the pneumatic tyre as "an improvement in the tyres or wheels for bicycles, tricycles and other road tyres." Although Robert William Thomson, among his various other inventions, had an earlier patent for "carriage wheels" with a pneumatic tyre (invented Dec 1845), there was little demand for it in his lifetime, and was forgotten. To improve his son's bicycle, Dunlop reinvented the idea, and developed it. He formed a company in 1889 (became Dunlop Rubber Co in 1900), and with help from the demonstrated benefit on racing bicycles, Dunlop had a successful product. These first tyres were glued to the wheel rim.
  Daimler car
Thumbnail - Daimler car
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  In 1886, Gottlieb Daimler invented his first car. Daimler patented a high speed, petrol-fuelled, four stroke engine in 1885 which he installed in a crude wooden bicycle frame, and so invented the motorbike. In 1886 came a four wheel vehicle, fashioned from a four seat, horse-drawn carriage, with a steering column and a larger engine mounted below the back seat and projecting through the floor. The one-cylinder, 1.1 h.p. engine had a four speed gearbox that turned the back wheels by means of a belt-driven mechanism capable of a maximum speed of 16 km/h
A Daimler Century: The Full History of Britain's Oldest Car Maker, by Lord Montagu. - book suggestion.
  Hawaii phone line
  In 1877, the first telephone and telegraph line in Hawaii was completed.
  French-Atlantic cable
  In 1869, the shore end of the French-Atlantic cable via St. Pierre was landed at Duxbury, Mass. [Ref.: Putnam's Monthly Magazine of American Literature, Science and Art, Vol. 14, No. 21, p.387.]
  In 1829, William Austin Burt, a surveyor, of Mount Vernon, Michigan, received a patent for his typographer, a forerunner of the typewriter (U.S. No. 5581X). The Patent Office fire of 1836 destroyed the original patent model. Burt's typographer was a heavy, box-like contraption, made almost entirely of wood. Like today's familiar toy typewriter, the typographer had type mounted on a metal wheel, with a rotating, semicircular frame. By turning a crank, Burt was able to move the wheel until it came to the letter he wanted. Then he would pull a lever, driving the type against the paper and making an inked impression. [Image: A reproduction of the Burt typographer]
  First U.S. lighthouse
  In 1715, The first lighthouse in America was authorized by the Boston Light Bill for construction at Little Brewster Island, Massachusetts. Boston Light, located on Little Brewster Island to mark the entrance to Boston harbour, has guided ships since its lantern was first lighted just before sunset, on 14 Sep 1716. In the 1600s, treacherous rocks caused countless loss of lives. False signal fires lit in the wrong places by "wreckers" lured ships aground to plunder. Boston Light was blown up by the British in 1776, but rebuilt in 1783 by Governor John Hancock. The lighthouse is also the last remaining manned station in the U.S.

- 100 -
Sophie Germain
Gertrude Elion
Ernest Rutherford
James Chadwick
Marcel Proust
William Harvey
Johann Goethe
John Keynes
Carl Gauss
Paul Feyerabend
- 90 -
Antoine Lavoisier
Lise Meitner
Charles Babbage
Ibn Khaldun
Ralph Emerson
Robert Bunsen
Frederick Banting
Andre Ampere
Winston Churchill
- 80 -
John Locke
Bronislaw Malinowski
Thomas Huxley
Alessandro Volta
Erwin Schrodinger
Wilhelm Roentgen
Louis Pasteur
Bertrand Russell
Jean Lamarck
- 70 -
Samuel Morse
John Wheeler
Nicolaus Copernicus
Robert Fulton
Pierre Laplace
Humphry Davy
Thomas Edison
Lord Kelvin
Theodore Roosevelt
Carolus Linnaeus
- 60 -
Francis Galton
Linus Pauling
Immanuel Kant
Martin Fischer
Robert Boyle
Karl Popper
Paul Dirac
James Watson
William Shakespeare
- 50 -
Stephen Hawking
Niels Bohr
Nikola Tesla
Rachel Carson
Max Planck
Henry Adams
Richard Dawkins
Werner Heisenberg
Alfred Wegener
John Dalton
- 40 -
Pierre Fermat
Edward Wilson
Johannes Kepler
Gustave Eiffel
Giordano Bruno
JJ Thomson
Thomas Kuhn
Leonardo DaVinci
David Hume
- 30 -
Andreas Vesalius
Rudolf Virchow
Richard Feynman
James Hutton
Alexander Fleming
Emile Durkheim
Benjamin Franklin
Robert Oppenheimer
Robert Hooke
Charles Kettering
- 20 -
Carl Sagan
James Maxwell
Marie Curie
Rene Descartes
Francis Crick
Michael Faraday
Srinivasa Ramanujan
Francis Bacon
Galileo Galilei
- 10 -
John Watson
Rosalind Franklin
Michio Kaku
Isaac Asimov
Charles Darwin
Sigmund Freud
Albert Einstein
Florence Nightingale
Isaac Newton

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