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Today in Science History - Quickie Quiz
Who said: “Genius is two percent inspiration, ninety-eight percent perspiration.”
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APRIL 12 – BIRTHS – Scientists born on April 12th
  Peter Safar
 Born 12 Apr 1924; died 3 Aug 2003 at age 79.
Austrian-American physician whose pioneering "Kiss of Life" procedure of mouth-to-mouth resuscitations is credited with saving countless lives. In the 1960s the technique was combined with new chest compressions, producing what's known today as CPR, or cardio-pulmonary resuscitation. He also helped create the organization that, in 1976, became the World Association for disaster and Emergency Medicine. Although there are ancient references to the apparent use of mouth-to-mouth resuscitation in the Bible, the technique fell out of practice until rediscovered by Safar in the 1950s. Also credited with playing a key role was his colleague, Dr James Elam. Safar survived a Nazi labor camp before emigrating to the U.S. after WW II.
  Otto Meyerhof
 Born 12 Apr 1884; died 6 Oct 1951 at age 67.
Otto Fritz Meyerhof was a German biochemist and corecipient, with Archibald V. Hill, of the 1922 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for research on the chemical reactions of metabolism in muscle. In 1940 he emigrated to America. Meyerhof demonstrated that the production of lactic acid in muscle tissue, formed as a result of glycogen breakdown, was effected without the consumption of oxygen (i.e., anaerobically). The lactic acid was reconverted to glycogen through oxidation by molecular oxygen, during muscle rest. This line of research was continued by Gustav Embden and Carl and Gerty Cori who worked out in greater detail the steps by which glycogen is converted to lactic acid - the Embden-Meyerhof pathway.
  Richard B. Goldschmidt
 Born 12 Apr 1878; died 24 Apr 1958 at age 80.   quotes
Richard Benedikt Goldschmidt was a German-American zoologist who specialized in heredity. He studied the X-chromosomes of butterflies. He produced a theory, now discredited, that there were more decisive factors in inheritance than the qualities of the individual genes. He held that the serial pattern of the chromosomes and the chemical configuration of the chromosome molecule were more important factors. His experiments with the Gypsy Moth revealed that much geographical variation is genetic and not environmental in origin. However, he was able with high temperature to produce phenotypes in fruit flies, and demonstrate an environmental factor could mimic some of the effects of genetic mutation, though not inheritable.«
Material Basis of Evolution, by Richard B. Goldschmidt. - book suggestion.
  Georges Urbain
 Born 12 Apr 1872; died 5 Nov 1938 at age 66.
French chemist who first isolated lutetium, the last of the stable rare earths. Between 1895-1912 he worked on the rare earths and performed more than 200,000 fractional distillations in which he separated the elements samarium, europium, gadolinium, terbium, dysprosium and holmium. In 1907, he described a process by which Marignac's ytterbium (1879) could be separated into the two elements, ytterbium (neoytterbium) and lutetium. He named the new element after the Roman era village than stood on the site of Paris, his home town. (It was independently discovered by von Welsbach at about the same time.) Urbain also discovered the law of optimum phosphorescence of binary systems and wrote on isomorphism.
  Sir James Mackenzie
Thumbnail - Sir James Mackenzie
 Born 12 Apr 1853; died 26 Jan 1925 at age 71.
Scottish cardiologist, pioneer in the study of cardiac arrhythmias. He was first to make simultaneous records of the arterial and venous pulses to evaluate the condition of the heart, a procedure that laid the foundation for much future research. Mackenzie also drew attention to the question of the heart's capacity for work, paving the way for the study of the energetics of the heart muscle. His work was particularly important in distinguishing atrial fibrillation and in treating this common condition with digitalis. In 1892, he built a machine for detecting and recording physiological activity, such as pulse rate and blood pressure, since known as a polygraph, and later used as a lie detector.
  Ferdinand von Lindemann
 Born 12 Apr 1852; died 6 Mar 1939 at age 86.
Carl Louis Ferdinand von Lindemann was a German mathematician who was the first to prove that is transcendental (it is not a solution of any algebraic equation with rational coefficients). This finally established the insoluble nature of the classical Greek mathematical problem of squaring the circle (constructing a square with the same area as a given circle using ruler and compasses alone.) In 1873, Lindemann visited Hermite in Paris and discussed the methods which Hermite had used in his proof that e, the base of natural logarithms, is transcendental. Following this visit, Lindemann was able to extend Hermite's results to show that was also transcendental (1882).« [DSB and other sources give death date as 6 Mar 1939. EB gives 1 Mar 1939.]
  Edward Walter Maunder
 Born 12 Apr 1851; died 21 Mar 1928 at age 76.
English astronomer who was the first to take the British Civil Service Commission examination for the post of photographic and spectroscopic assistant at the Royal Observatory, Greenwich. For the next forty years that he worked there, he made extensive measurements of sunspots. Checking historical records, he found a period from 1645 to 1715 that had a remarkable lack of reports on sunspots. Although he might have questioned the accuracy of the reporting, he instead attributed the shortage of report to an actual dearth of sunspots during that period. Although his suggestion was not generally accepted at first, accumulating research has since indicated there are indeed decades-long times when the sun has notably few sunspots. These periods are now known as Maunder minima.«
Maunder Minimum: And the Variable Sun-Earth Connection, by Willie Wei-Hock Soon and Steven H. Yaskell. - book suggestion.
  Albert Heim
 Born 12 Apr 1849; died 31 Aug 1937 at age 88.
Swiss geologist whose studies of the Swiss Alps greatly advanced knowledge of the dynamics of mountain building and of glacial effects on topography and geology. He studied the formation of overthrusts and nappes in the Alps. He supported the idea of a contracting Earth. He also studied the mechanics of rock deformation, proposing that rocks can deform plastically under pressure and that the same pressure causes metamorphism. After a near-fatal fall in the Alps during which he had a mystical experience, Heim began the first serious study of near-death experiences. Over a period of several decades he collected observations and accounts from numerous survivors of serious accidents. Heim first presented these findings at the Swiss Alpine Club in 1892.
  Nikolay Mikhayovich Przhevalsky
 Born 12 Apr 1839; died 1 Nov 1888 at age 49.
Russian explorer.
  John Shaw Billings
 Born 12 Apr 1838; died 11 Mar 1913 at age 74.   quotes
American surgeon and librarian whose organization of U.S. medical institutions played a central role in the modernization of hospital care and the maintenance of public health. During the Civil War, in the battles of Chancellorsville and Gettysburg, he performed many operations and was the first surgeon in the war to attempt, with success, excision of the ankle joint. He was profoundly interested in advancing knowledge by creating libraries, including the New York Public Library, to improve access to books. Billings also had ideas about hospital architectural design. He planned the new Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore with ventilation systems that reflected the best contemporary understanding of industrial hygiene.
  Grenville Mellen Dodge
 Born 12 Apr 1831; died 3 Jan 1916 at age 84.
American civil engineer who was responsible for much of the railroad construction in the western and southwestern U.S. during the 19th century. Before the Civil War, he did railroad work in the West. During the war, with the Union forces, his skill in rapidly rebuilding the bridges and railroads destroyed by Confederates was of great value to Grant and Sherman in their Western campaigns. He became a Union general. He was severely wounded at the siege of Atlanta. After campaigning (1865-66) against the Native Americans, he left the army (May 1866). Then as chief engineer of the Union Pacific Railroad, his efficient, rapid construction of that line was his greatest achievement. Dodge was a Republican Congressman from Iowa (1867-69).
  Antoine-Laurent de Jussieu
 Born 12 Apr 1748; died 17 Sep 1836 at age 88.
French botanist who developed the principles that served as the foundation of a natural system of plant classification. He was born into a family of eminent botanists from Lyons in France. After graduating from the Jardin du Roi in 1770, he continued to work there. He is remembered for introducing a natural classification system that distinguishes relationships between plants relying a large number of characters, unlike the artificial Linnean system, which uses only a few. He distinguished 15 classes and 100 families, of which 76 remain in botanical nomenclature today. His uncles Antoine, Bernard, and Joseph de Jussieu all made important contributions to botany and his son, Adrien, subsequently continued the family tradition.
  William Cookworthy
Thumbnail -
Plymouth China
 Born 12 Apr 1705; died 17 Oct 1780 at age 75.
English chemist who pioneered the manufacture of porcelain in Britain. He discovered deposits of kaolin and China stone (forms of decomposed granite) near St. Austell, Cornwall (1756). It was sufficiently pure to make a Chinese-style pure white porcelain. He spent many years experimenting to perfect the product. Also, for John Smeaton's new Eddystone lighthouse, he formulated a hydraulic cement that both set quickly and hard enough to withstand erosion from the sea waves. He patented his porcelain process (17 Mar 1768), and ran a factory for ten years, though unprofitably, before selling out to another manufacturer. China clay is an important industrial product used today in coated paper, toothpaste, paint, rubber, plastics, pharmaceuticals and agricultural products.«   more

Nature bears long with those who wrong her. She is patient under abuse. But when abuse has gone too far, when the time of reckoning finally comes, she is equally slow to be appeased and to turn away her wrath. (1882) -- Nathaniel Egleston, who was writing then about deforestation, but speaks equally well about the danger of climate change today.
Carl Sagan Thumbnail Carl Sagan: In science it often happens that scientists say, 'You know that's a really good argument; my position is mistaken,' and then they would actually change their minds and you never hear that old view from them again. They really do it. It doesn't happen as often as it should, because scientists are human and change is sometimes painful. But it happens every day. I cannot recall the last time something like that happened in politics or religion. (1987) ...(more by Sagan)

Albert Einstein: I used to wonder how it comes about that the electron is negative. Negative-positive—these are perfectly symmetric in physics. There is no reason whatever to prefer one to the other. Then why is the electron negative? I thought about this for a long time and at last all I could think was “It won the fight!” ...(more by Einstein)

Richard Feynman: It is the facts that matter, not the proofs. Physics can progress without the proofs, but we can't go on without the facts ... if the facts are right, then the proofs are a matter of playing around with the algebra correctly. ...(more by Feynman)
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APRIL 12 – DEATHS – Scientists died on April 12th
  George Wald
 Died 12 Apr 1997 at age 90 (born 18 Nov 1906).   quotes
American biochemist who shared (with Haldan K. Hartline of the U.S. and Ragnar Granit of Sweden) the 1967 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for “for their discoveries concerning the primary physiological and chemical visual processes in the eye.” In the early 1930s, in research at Harvard University, he identified that vitamin A was present in the retina of the eye. This was the first discovery of a biological role of a fat-soluble vitamin. Later, Wald expanded Granit’s work on the red, blue and green retinal cones in the eye by establishing the biochemical basis of their sensitivity to different parts of the light spectrum. He was active in political causes such as speaking out against the Vietnam War, nuclear proliferation and the military-industrial complex, and refused to do research on poisonous chemicals for political ends.«
  Henry A. Gleason
 Died 12 Apr 1975 at age 93 (born 2 Jan 1882).   quotes
Henry Allan Gleason was an American botanist who was was active with the New York Botanical Garden for 32 years (1918-1950). By age 13, he already was a botany enthusiast. While still in high school, he contributed to The American Naturalist. Early in his career, he travelled to the Philippines, Java and Ceylon to studying tropical vegetation. In 1918, he gave a lecture on his findings, which led to the offer of a permanent position at NYBG, where he developed its South American collection.He was one of the first to consider community ecology. His paper on “The Individualistic Concept of the Plant Association” (1926) concluded that species tended to distribute themselves independently of one another. Eventually, his idea was embraced for the study of vegetation on an ecological and geographical basis. After retirement, he became emeritus head curator.«
  Igor Tamm
Thumbnail - Igor Tamm
 Died 12 Apr 1971 at age 75 (born 8 Jul 1895).
Soviet physicist who shared the 1958 Nobel Prize for Physics with Pavel A. Cherenkov and Ilya M. Frank for his efforts in explaining Cherenkov radiation. Tamm was an outstanding theoretical physicist, after early researches in crystallo-optics, he evolved a method for interpreting the interaction of nuclear particles. Together with I. M. Frank, he developed the theoretical interpretation of the radiation of electrons moving through matter faster than the speed of light (the Cerenkov effect), and the theory of showers in cosmic rays. He has also contributed towards methods for the control of thermonuclear reactions.
  Alfred Mιtraux
 Died 12 Apr 1963 at age 60 (born 5 Nov 1902).
Swiss anthropologist noted for his pioneering contributions to South American ethnohistory and the examination of African culture in Haiti. While director of the ethnological institute at the University of Tucumαn, Argentina, (1928-34) he wrote two classic works on the ethnohistory of the extinct Tupinambα Indians of Brazil. He made an expedition to Easter Island (1934-35), after which he argued that Easter Island's indigenous population is Polynesian, both culturally and physically, and that the island's well-known monolithic sculptures are native creations rather than Asian or American Indian ones. After travelling the Amazon (1947-48) he studied the Haiti island culture (1949-50). He viewed voodoo as a structured, complex religious system with African origins.
  Kazimierz Ajdukiewicz
 Died 12 Apr 1963 at age 72 (born 12 Dec 1890).
Polish logician and semanticist who was the chief contributor to the Warsaw school of philosophy and logic, and is credited with developing in 1920 the first deductive theory for the study of logic based on syntax. The dominant theme of Ajdukiewicz's thought was the problem of the dependence of our knowledge and conception of knowledge on language. His main contributions are in the field of logical syntax (with the theory of semantical categories) and in epistemology, with the so-called “radical conventionalism,” a doctrine where he claimed that there exist conceptual apparatuses which are not intertranslatable and that scientific knowledge grows through the replacement of one such conceptual apparatus by another.
  Clara Barton
 Died 12 Apr 1912 at age 90 (born 25 Dec 1821).
American nurse who was a nursing pioneer during the American Civil War, and was instrumental in the founding of the American Red Cross. At the outbreak of the Civil War, Barton worked as a U.S. Patent Office clerk and collected provisions and medical supplies for the Union Army. Restless with her limited role and undeterred by War Department regulations and prevailing stereotypes, Barton distributed supplies and tended to the wounded and dying despite life-threatening conditions. She became known as “The Angel of the Battlefield.” Almost singlehandedly she founded the American Red Cross, which has provided comfort in times of crisis since 1882.
  Edward Drinker Cope
 Died 12 Apr 1897 at age 56 (born 28 Jul 1840).
American paleontologist and prolific taxonomist of vertebrate paleontology. He was also active in ichthyology and herpetology. He was an evolutionist, and was one of the founders of the Neo- Lamarckian school of evolutionary thought. This school believed that changes in developmental (embryonic) timing, not natural selection, was the driving force of evolution. Cope thought that groups of species that shared similar developmental patterns could be grouped into more inclusive groups (i.e. genera, families, and so on). He led many natural history surveys in the American West for the precursors of the U.S. Geological Survey, making many important finds on his trips, including dinosaur discoveries in western North America.
The Bone Sharp: The Life of Edward Drinker Cope, by Jane P. Davidson. - book suggestion.
  Karl Humann
 Died 12 Apr 1896 at age 57 (born 4 Jan 1839).
German engineer and archaeologist whose excavation of the ancient Greek city of Pergamum (now Bergama, Tur.) brought to light some of the choicest examples of Hellenistic sculpture and revealed much about Hellenistic city planning. He also excavated the Greek city of Magnesia, another ancient city located in modern Turkey.
  John Stough Bobbs
 Died 12 Apr 1870 at age 60 (born 28 Dec 1809).
American physician who performed the first U.S. gallstone operation in Indianapolis, Indiana, becoming known as "the father of cholecystotomy". The surgery was reported, 19-20 May 1868, to the Indiana State Medical Society of which he was president of the surgery section. Bobbs was a commissioner of the state's first hospital, the Indiana Hospital for the Insane. He was the state's first and most vocal advocate for a medical school, and he was founded the Indiana Medical college in 1869 (which was incorporated into the Indiana University School of Medicine in 1908). Earlier, he had served as state senator (1856-60). He was a civilian brigade surgeon during the Civil War.«
  Charles Messier
Thumbnail - Charles Messier
 Died 12 Apr 1817 at age 86 (born 26 Jun 1730).   quotes
French astronomer who discovered 15 comets. He was the first to compile a systematic catalog of "M objects." The Messier Catalogue (1784), containing 103 star clusters, nebulae, and galaxies. (In Messier's time a nebula was a term used to denote any blurry celestial light source.) He established alphanumeric names for the objects (M1, M2, etc.), which notation continues to be used in astronomy today. [DSB gives date of death as 11 or 12 Apr 1817. EB gives 12 Apr 1817.]   more
  Antoine de Jussieu
 Died 12 Apr 1758 at age 71 (born 6 Jul 1686).   quotes
French physician and botanist who wrote many papers on human anatomy, zoology, and botany, including one on the flower and fruit of the coffee shrub.

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APRIL 12 – EVENTS – Science events on April 12th
  Internet spam
  In 1994, the first Internet spamming program was used by an attorney in Arizona. Laurence Canter created the software program, a simple Perl script, that flooded Usenet message board readers with a notice for the "Green Card Lottery" to solicit business for his law firm of Canter & Siegel (with wife, Martha Siegel.) The reaction from the online community was vigorously critical, condemning such a form of advertising. Thousands of recipients complained, but a new, burgeoning business of unsolicited mass Internet advertising had been spawned. The term "spam" was coined from a sketch in the "Monty Python's Flying Circus" BBC television show in which a waitress offered a menu full of variations of spam to an unwilling patron.
  Genetically engineered mouse
  In 1988, the first U.S. patent was issued on a mammal life form to Harvard scientists Philip Leder and Timothy Stewart for a genetically engineered mouse (No. 4,736,866). The Oncomouse was altered to be highly susceptible to breast cancer. It was called the product of the year by a major financial magazine. Although the patent is owned by Harvard Medical School, because it was developed with funding from DuPont, an earlier commercialization arrangement leaves DuPont entitled to exclusive license of the patent. DuPont has claimed patent protection on any anticancer product ever derived from the mice. The first patent for a life form was issued on 31 Mar 1981 for a genetically engineered bacterium. [Image: one of the freeze-dried mice donated to the Science Museum, London, by Harvard Medical School in 1989]   more
  Toys in space
  In 1985, when Space Shuttle Discovery mission 51-D blasted off, it had aboard the first yo-yo toy taken into space. The yellow plastic Duncan Imperial yo-yo, a gyroscope and other toys were demonstrated during time in orbit, to compare their behavior in microgravity with normal play on the Earth’s surface. Astronaut David Griggs did the tricks with the yo-yo, known as flying saucers and around the moon. The yo-yo sleeper trick, however, could not work without normal gravity to hold the yo-yo spinning in the loop at the end of its string. When spinning, a gyroscope showed exceptional stability, keeping the same orientation of its axis, even as the flywheel slowed. A yo-yo was also aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis which lifted off on 31 Jul 1992.«
  Space shuttle
  In 1981, the American Space Shuttle Columbia was launched into space, NASA flight STS-1, to become the first of a series of reusable spacecraft. The mission commander was John W. Young with pilot Robert Crippen.
  Nerve gas accident
  In 1968, a sudden outbreak of startling sheep deaths in Skull Valley, Utah, was attributed to a nerve gas sprayed earlier by the Army on the nearby Dugway Proving Grounds. The investigation made by the National Communicable Disease Center was hampered by the Army's initial denial of responsibility and slowness to provide adequate gas samples for independent agencies to check. The debacle led to an overhaul of procedures concerning development of chemical weapons at Dugway.
  First Earth orbit by man
  In 1961, Yuri Gagarin became the first man to orbit the Earth. His spacecraft, Vostok 1, had radio, television and life-support equipment to relay information on his condition. The flight was automated. Gagarin's controls were locked to prevent him from taking control of the ship, although a key in a sealed envelope was provided in case of an emergency. After e-entry, Gagarin ejected and made a planned descent with his own parachute. However for many years the Soviet Union denied this, because the flight would not have been recognized for various FAI world records unless the pilot had accompanied his craft to a landing. Gagarin died in a plane crash 7 years later.«
  German nuclear weapons
  In 1957, in Bonn, leading German physicists ceased all work connected with nuclear weapons. *
  Salk vaccine field trial
  In 1955, the Salk vaccine against polio was announced to work, and be “safe, effective and potent,” after a year-long field trial. Dr. Thomas Francis, Jr. made the statement at a press conference in Ann Arbor, Michigan, on the tenth annniversary of the death of Franklin Roosevelt (1945), the U.S. president who was a victim of the disease. Dr. Francis was a former professor of Jonas Salk.
  Oppenheimer hearing
Thumbnail - Oppenheimer hearing
  In 1954, the American Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) began hearings to revoke Robert Oppenheimer's security clearance, thereby severing him from the commission's work. Although he had led the scientists making the atomic bombs during the WW II Manhattan Project, he had been affected by the bombs' death toll and chilling descriptions of radiation sickness. When the Soviet Union detonated an atom bomb in 1949, Edward Teller and Ernest Lawrence lobbied feverishly to develop the hydrogen bomb. Oppenheimer chaired the General Advisory Committee AEC, repudiated the hydrogen bomb as a weapon of “genocide.” In May 1953, when Lewis Strauss accepted the chair of the AEC, he regarded Oppenheimer as a security risk, and wanted him to be dismissed.
American Prometheus: The Triumph and Tragedy of J. Robert Oppenheimer, by Kai Bird, Martin J. Sherwin. - book suggestion.
Booklist for Robert Oppenheimer.
  Theory of Relativity
  In 1923, American scientists studying Einstein's Theory of Relativity found further evidence in support of its correctness. *
  Marie Curie’s discoveries announced
  In 1898, Marie Curie observed a meeting of the French Academy of Sciences, where one of her teachers, Prof. Gabriel Lippmann announced her discovery of substances much more radioactive than uranium. Working since Dec 1897, she had verified that the radiant activity of various compounds was directly related to the amount of uranium present, whether solid, powdered, or in a wet state. She proposed the radiant activity was an atomic property, for it was independent of physical or chemical state. She announced that in pitchblende and charcolite she had discovered compounds even more active than uranium. (She had not, in fact, found a new element, but was the first to identify thorium’s powerful radioactivity.)«
Madame Curie: A Biography, by Eve Curie. - book suggestion.
Booklist for Marie Curie.
  Portable typewriter
Thumbnail - Portable typewriter
  In 1892, the first U.S. patent for a portable typewriter, the Blickensderfer, was issued to George Blickensderfer of Stamford, Connecticut (No. 472,692).
  Alfred Nobel's premature obituary
Thumbnail - Alfred Nobel's premature obituary
  In 1888, a French newspaper mistakenly published an obituary for Albert Nobel, inventor of dynamite, calling him “"a merchant of death.” The mistake was that it was actually Albert's brother, Ludwig Nobel, who had just died (at age 56, due to heart trouble). However, shocked by the newspaper's report, Albert Nobel began to seek a change in public opinion, which led to his decision to establish the Nobel Prizes. [Image: Alfred Nobel]
  Fire-proof safe
  In 1833, the first U.S. patent for a fireproof safe was issued to Charles A. Gaylor of New York City, as a “fire-proof iron chest.” He made it from two chests, one within the other, with a space between to “inclose air of any non-conductor of heat.” Gaylor called his product the Salamander Safe, after the mythical salamander, an animal having the power to endure fire without harm.
  Railroad tunnel
  In 1831, the first U.S. railroad tunnel was started between Hollidaysburg and Johnstown, Pennsylvania. Driven through slate, the Staple Bend Tunnel was 901 feet long, 25 feet wide and 21 feet high and lined throughout with masonry 18 inches thick. It was for the Allegheny Portage Railroad, the first railroad to go west of the Alleghany Mountains. The project engineer was Solomon White Roberts. The tunnel was completed 18 Mar 1834. The restored tunnel is now a National Historic Site
  In 1829, the explorer-naturalist Alexander von Humboldt, age 59, began a scientific expedition to uncharted regions of Siberia at the invitation of Tsar Nicholas who also financed the journey. Humboldt crossed Asia, from Russia and Siberia to Mongolia. He recorded temperatures and noted that temperatures varied at the same latitude in accordance with distance from the ocean. As temperature data was collected from a series of Russian weather stations, von Humboldt constructed a world map of temperature, being an early use of isotherms, which he found did not neatly follow latitude. From this he developed the theory of continentality. The expedition ended on 28 Dec 1829. His 3-volume work on Asie Centrale was published several years later.
  Comb-cutting machine
  In 1799, the first US patent for a comb-cutting machine was issued to Phineas Pratt of Connecticut as a "machine for making combs." He and his son , Abel Pratt, cut the plates with handsaws and the teeth with circular saws operated by a windmill and waterpower at Ivoryton, Conn. Previous manufacturing of combs in the U.S. began with the first commercial scale comb factory by Enoch Noyes of West Newbury, Mass. (1759), who made combs from flattened animal horns. The first U.S. made ivory comb was made at Centerbrook, Conn. (1789) by Andrew Lord, who cut the plate and teeth with a handsaw.
  Galileo trial
Thumbnail - Galileo trial
  In 1633, Galileo Galilei's second trial before the Inquisition began. At its conclusion, his belief that the Earth was not the centre of the Universe was pronounced heretical.« *
Galileo: A Life, by James Reston. - book suggestion.
Booklist for Galileo Galilei.

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Ernest Rutherford
James Chadwick
Marcel Proust
William Harvey
Johann Goethe
John Keynes
Carl Gauss
Paul Feyerabend
- 90 -
Antoine Lavoisier
Lise Meitner
Charles Babbage
Ibn Khaldun
Ralph Emerson
Robert Bunsen
Frederick Banting
Andre Ampere
Winston Churchill
- 80 -
John Locke
Bronislaw Malinowski
Thomas Huxley
Alessandro Volta
Erwin Schrodinger
Wilhelm Roentgen
Louis Pasteur
Bertrand Russell
Jean Lamarck
- 70 -
Samuel Morse
John Wheeler
Nicolaus Copernicus
Robert Fulton
Pierre Laplace
Humphry Davy
Thomas Edison
Lord Kelvin
Theodore Roosevelt
Carolus Linnaeus
- 60 -
Francis Galton
Linus Pauling
Immanuel Kant
Martin Fischer
Robert Boyle
Karl Popper
Paul Dirac
James Watson
William Shakespeare
- 50 -
Stephen Hawking
Niels Bohr
Nikola Tesla
Rachel Carson
Max Planck
Henry Adams
Richard Dawkins
Werner Heisenberg
Alfred Wegener
John Dalton
- 40 -
Pierre Fermat
Edward Wilson
Johannes Kepler
Gustave Eiffel
Giordano Bruno
JJ Thomson
Thomas Kuhn
Leonardo DaVinci
David Hume
- 30 -
Andreas Vesalius
Rudolf Virchow
Richard Feynman
James Hutton
Alexander Fleming
Emile Durkheim
Benjamin Franklin
Robert Oppenheimer
Robert Hooke
Charles Kettering
- 20 -
Carl Sagan
James Maxwell
Marie Curie
Rene Descartes
Francis Crick
Michael Faraday
Srinivasa Ramanujan
Francis Bacon
Galileo Galilei
- 10 -
John Watson
Rosalind Franklin
Michio Kaku
Isaac Asimov
Charles Darwin
Sigmund Freud
Albert Einstein
Florence Nightingale
Isaac Newton

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