Experimentation Quotes (6 quotes)
Any living cell carries with it the experience of a billion years of experimentation by its ancestors. (1949)
Laplace considers astronomy a science of observation, because we can only observe the movements of the planets; we cannot reach them, indeed, to alter their course and to experiment with them. On earth, said Laplace, we make phenomena vary by experiments; in the sky, we carefully define all the phenomena presented to us by celestial motion. Certain physicians call medicine a science of observations, because they wrongly think that experimentation is inapplicable to it.
My definition of science is somewhat as follows: Science is an interconnected series of concepts and conceptual schemes that have developed as a result of experimentation and observation and are fruitful of further experimentation and observations. In this definition the emphasis is on the word fruitful.
Philosophers of science constantly discuss theories and representation of reality, but say almost nothing about experiment, technology, or the use of knowledge to alter the world. This is odd, because experimental method used to be just another name for scientific method.... I hope [to] initiate a Back-to-Bacon movement, in which we attend more seriously to experimental science. Experimentation has a life of its own.
Science would have us believe that such accuracy, leading to certainty, is the only criterion of knowledge, would make the trial of Galileo the paradigm of the two points of view which aspire to truth, would suggest, that is, that the cardinals represent only superstition and repression, while Galileo represents freedom. But there is another criterion which is systematically neglected in this elevation of science. Man does not nowand will not everlive by the bread of scientific method alone. He must deal with life and death, with love and cruelty and despair, and so must make conjectures of great importance which may or may not be true and which do not lend themselves to experimentation: It is better to give than to receive; Love thy neighbor as thyself; Better to risk slavery through non-violence than to defend freedom with murder. We must deal with such propositions, must decide whether they are true, whether to believe them, whether to act on themand scientific method is no help for by their nature these matters lie forever beyond the realm of science.
The research rat of the future allows experimentation without manipulation of the real world. This is the cutting edge of modeling technology.