Celebrating 18 Years on the Web
TODAY IN SCIENCE HISTORY ®
Find science on or your birthday

Today in Science History - Quickie Quiz
Who said: “I was going to record talking... the foil was put on; I then shouted 'Mary had a little lamb',... and the machine reproduced it perfectly.”
more quiz questions >>
Home > Category Index for Science Quotations > Category Index P > Category: Philosophic

Philosophic Quotes (3 quotes)

In the social production of their life, men enter into definite relations that are indispensable and independent of their will; these relations of production correspond to a definite stage of development of their material forces of production. The sum total of these relations of production constitutes the economic structure of society - the real foundation, on which rises a legal and political superstructure and to which correspond definite forms of social consciousness. The mode of production of material life determines the social, political and intellectual life process in general. It is not the consciousness of men that determines their being, but, on the contrary, their social being that determines their consciousness. At a certain stage of their development, the material productive forces in society come in conflict with the existing relations of production, or - what is but a legal expression for the same thing - with the property relations within which they have been at work before. From forms of development of the productive forces these relations turn into fetters. Then begins an epoch of social revolution. With the change of the economic foundation the entire immense superstructure is more or less rapidly transformed. In considering such transformations a distinction should always be made between the material transformation of the economic conditions of production, which can be determined with the precision of natural science, and the legal, political, religious, aesthetic or philosophic - in short, ideological forms in which men become conscious of this conflict and fight it out. Just as our opinion of an individual is not based on what he thinks of himself, so we can not judge of such a period of transformation by its own consciousness; on the contrary, this consciousness must be explained rather from the contradictions of material life, from the existing conflict between the social productive forces and the relations of production. No social order ever disappears before all the productive forces for which there is room in it have been developed; and new, higher relations of production never appear before the material conditions of their existence have matured in the womb of the old society itself. Therefore, mankind always sets itself only such tasks as it can solve; since, looking at the matter more closely, we will always find that the task itself arises only when the material conditions necessary for its solution already exist or are at least in the process of formation. In broad outlines we can designate the Asiatic, the ancient, the feudal, and the modern bourgeois modes of production as so many progressive epochs in the economic formation of society. The bourgeois relations of production are the last antagonistic form of the social process of production - antagonistic not in the sense of individual antagonism, but of one arising from the social conditions of life of the individuals; at the same time the productive forces developing in the womb of bourgeois society create the material conditions for the solution of that antagonism. This social formation constitutes, therefore, the closing chapter of the prehistoric stage of human society.
Karl Marx
...
Science quotes on:  |  Aesthetic (26)  |  Already (16)  |  Ancient (68)  |  Antagonism (5)  |  Antagonistic (2)  |  Appear (55)  |  Arise (32)  |  Base (43)  |  Become (100)  |  Begin (52)  |  Bourgeois (2)  |  Broad (18)  |  Certain (84)  |  Change (291)  |  Chapter (7)  |  Close (40)  |  Closely (8)  |  Condition (119)  |  Conflict (49)  |  Conscious (25)  |  Consciousness (71)  |  Consider (45)  |  Constitute (19)  |  Contradiction (44)  |  Contrary (22)  |  Correspond (5)  |  Create (98)  |  Definite (27)  |  Designation (10)  |  Determine (45)  |  Develop (55)  |  Development (228)  |  Disappear (22)  |  Distinction (37)  |  Economic (21)  |  Enter (20)  |  Entire (29)  |  Epoch (12)  |  Exist (89)  |  Existence (254)  |  Explain (61)  |  Expression (82)  |  Fetter (3)  |  Fight (37)  |  Find (248)  |  Force (194)  |  Form (210)  |  Formation (54)  |  Foundation (75)  |  General (92)  |  High (78)  |  Human Society (6)  |  Ideological (3)  |  Immense (28)  |  Independent (41)  |  Indispensable (8)  |  Individual (177)  |  Intellectual (79)  |  Judge (43)  |  Least (43)  |  Legal (6)  |  Life (917)  |  Mankind (196)  |  Material (124)  |  Matter (270)  |  Mature (7)  |  Mode (29)  |  Modern (104)  |  More Or Less (4)  |  Natural Science (62)  |  Necessary (89)  |  New (340)  |  Old (104)  |  Opinion (146)  |  Outline (6)  |  Period (49)  |  Political (31)  |  Precision (38)  |  Prehistoric (5)  |  Process (201)  |  Production (105)  |  Productive (10)  |  Progressive (13)  |  Property (96)  |  Rapidly (10)  |  Real (95)  |  Relation (96)  |  Religious (44)  |  Revolution (56)  |  Rise (51)  |  Room (29)  |  Same (92)  |  Sense (240)  |  Set (56)  |  Short (31)  |  Social (93)  |  Social Order (7)  |  Society (188)  |  Solution (168)  |  Solve (41)  |  Stage (39)  |  Structure (191)  |  Sum (30)  |  Task (68)  |  Think (205)  |  Time (439)  |  Total (29)  |  Transform (20)  |  Transformation (47)  |  Turn (72)  |  Womb (13)  |  Work (457)

The chief requisite for the making of a good chicken pie is chicken; nay, no amount of culinary legerdemain can make up for the lack of chicken. In the same way, the chief requisite for the history of science is intimate scientific knowledge; no amount of philosophic legerdemain can make up for its absence.
In 'The Teaching of the History of Science', The Scientific Monthly (Sep 1918), 194.
Science quotes on:  |  Absence (16)  |  Chicken (6)  |  History Of Science (53)  |  Intimate (11)  |  Knowledge (1128)  |  Lack (52)  |  Legerdemain (2)  |  Pie (3)  |  Requisite (6)  |  Scientific (169)

The philosophic spirit of inquiry may be traced to brute curiosity, and that to the habit of examining all things in search of food. Artistic genius is an expansion of monkey imitativeness.
In The Martyrdom of Man (14th ed., 1892), 392.
Science quotes on:  |  Artistic (10)  |  Brute (12)  |  Curiosity (89)  |  Examine (24)  |  Expansion (25)  |  Food (139)  |  Genius (186)  |  Habit (78)  |  Imitation (17)  |  Inquiry (33)  |  Monkey (37)  |  Search (85)  |  Spirit (113)  |  Trace (39)


Carl Sagan Thumbnail In science it often happens that scientists say, 'You know that's a really good argument; my position is mistaken,' and then they would actually change their minds and you never hear that old view from them again. They really do it. It doesn't happen as often as it should, because scientists are human and change is sometimes painful. But it happens every day. I cannot recall the last time something like that happened in politics or religion. (1987) -- Carl Sagan
Quotations by: Albert Einstein Isaac Newton Lord Kelvin Charles Darwin Srinivasa Ramanujan Carl Sagan Florence Nightingale Thomas Edison Aristotle Marie Curie Benjamin Franklin Winston Churchill Galileo Galilei Sigmund Freud Robert Bunsen Louis Pasteur Theodore Roosevelt Abraham Lincoln Ronald Reagan Leonardo DaVinci Michio Kaku Karl Popper Johann Goethe Robert Oppenheimer Charles Kettering  ... (more people)

Quotations about: Atomic  Bomb Biology Chemistry Deforestation Engineering Anatomy Astronomy Bacteria Biochemistry Botany Conservation Dinosaur Environment Fractal Genetics Geology History of Science Invention Jupiter Knowledge Love Mathematics Measurement Medicine Natural Resource Organic Chemistry Physics Physician Quantum Theory Research Science and Art Teacher Technology Universe Volcano Virus Wind Power Women Scientists X-Rays Youth Zoology  ... (more topics)
Sitewide search within all Today In Science History pages:
Visit our Science and Scientist Quotations index for more Science Quotes from archaeologists, biologists, chemists, geologists, inventors and inventions, mathematicians, physicists, pioneers in medicine, science events and technology.

Names index: | A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z |

Categories index: | 1 | 2 | A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z |

- 100 -
Sophie Germain
Gertrude Elion
Ernest Rutherford
James Chadwick
Marcel Proust
William Harvey
Johann Goethe
John Keynes
Carl Gauss
Paul Feyerabend
- 90 -
Antoine Lavoisier
Lise Meitner
Charles Babbage
Ibn Khaldun
Euclid
Ralph Emerson
Robert Bunsen
Frederick Banting
Andre Ampere
Winston Churchill
- 80 -
John Locke
Bronislaw Malinowski
Bible
Thomas Huxley
Alessandro Volta
Erwin Schrodinger
Wilhelm Roentgen
Louis Pasteur
Bertrand Russell
Jean Lamarck
- 70 -
Samuel Morse
John Wheeler
Nicolaus Copernicus
Robert Fulton
Pierre Laplace
Humphry Davy
Thomas Edison
Lord Kelvin
Theodore Roosevelt
Carolus Linnaeus
- 60 -
Francis Galton
Linus Pauling
Immanuel Kant
Martin Fischer
Robert Boyle
Karl Popper
Paul Dirac
Avicenna
James Watson
William Shakespeare
- 50 -
Stephen Hawking
Niels Bohr
Nikola Tesla
Rachel Carson
Max Planck
Henry Adams
Richard Dawkins
Werner Heisenberg
Alfred Wegener
John Dalton
- 40 -
Pierre Fermat
Edward Wilson
Johannes Kepler
Gustave Eiffel
Giordano Bruno
JJ Thomson
Thomas Kuhn
Leonardo DaVinci
Archimedes
David Hume
- 30 -
Andreas Vesalius
Rudolf Virchow
Richard Feynman
James Hutton
Alexander Fleming
Emile Durkheim
Benjamin Franklin
Robert Oppenheimer
Robert Hooke
Charles Kettering
- 20 -
Carl Sagan
James Maxwell
Marie Curie
Rene Descartes
Francis Crick
Hippocrates
Michael Faraday
Srinivasa Ramanujan
Francis Bacon
Galileo Galilei
- 10 -
Aristotle
John Watson
Rosalind Franklin
Michio Kaku
Isaac Asimov
Charles Darwin
Sigmund Freud
Albert Einstein
Florence Nightingale
Isaac Newton



who invites your feedback
Thank you for sharing.
Today in Science History
Sign up for Newsletter
with quiz, quotes and more.