Celebrating 20 Years on the Web
TODAY IN SCIENCE HISTORY ®
Find science on or your birthday

Today in Science History - Quickie Quiz
Who said: “Truth is ever to be found in simplicity, and not in the multiplicity and confusion of things.”
more quiz questions >>
Home > Category Index for Science Quotations > Category Index O > Category: Observational

Observational Quotes (15 quotes)

At the beginning of its existence as a science, biology was forced to take cognizance of the seemingly boundless variety of living things, for no exact study of life phenomena was possible until the apparent chaos of the distinct kinds of organisms had been reduced to a rational system. Systematics and morphology, two predominantly descriptive and observational disciplines, took precedence among biological sciences during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. More recently physiology has come to the foreground, accompanied by the introduction of quantitative methods and by a shift from the observationalism of the past to a predominance of experimentation.
In Genetics and the Origin of Species (1937, 1982), 6.
Science quotes on:  |  18th Century (21)  |  19th Century (33)  |  Apparent (84)  |  Beginning (305)  |  Biological (137)  |  Biology (216)  |  Boundless (26)  |  Chaos (91)  |  Description (84)  |  Descriptive (17)  |  Discipline (77)  |  Distinct (97)  |  Existence (460)  |  Experiment (696)  |  Foreground (3)  |  Introduction (35)  |  Kind (557)  |  Life (1799)  |  Living (491)  |  Method (506)  |  Methods (204)  |  More (2559)  |  Morphology (22)  |  Observation (560)  |  Organism (220)  |  Past (337)  |  Physiology (95)  |  Possible (554)  |  Precedence (4)  |  Predominance (3)  |  Quantitative (29)  |  Rational (91)  |  Science (3880)  |  Seemingly (28)  |  Shift (44)  |  Study (656)  |  System (537)  |  Systematic (57)  |  Systematics (4)  |  Thing (1915)  |  Two (937)  |  Variety (133)

Cosmology, for centuries consisting of speculation based on a minimum of observational evidence and a maximum of philosophical predilection, became in the twentieth century an observational science, its theories now subject to verification or refutation to a degree previously unimaginable.
Opening sentence in 'Philosophical Values and Observation in Edwin Hubble's Choice of a Model of the Universe', Historical Studies in the Physical Sciences (1982), 13, No. 1, 41.
Science quotes on:  |  20th Century (35)  |  Century (310)  |  Cosmology (26)  |  Degree (275)  |  Evidence (248)  |  Maximum (12)  |  Minimum (12)  |  Observation (560)  |  Philosophy (382)  |  Predilection (4)  |  Refutation (12)  |  Science (3880)  |  Speculation (126)  |  Subject (522)  |  Theory (972)  |  Unimaginable (7)  |  Verification (31)

For the truth of the conclusions of physical science, observation is the supreme Court of Appeal. It does not follow that every item which we confidently accept as physical knowledge has actually been certified by the Court; our confidence is that it would be certified by the Court if it were submitted. But it does follow that every item of physical knowledge is of a form which might be submitted to the Court. It must be such that we can specify (although it may be impracticable to carry out) an observational procedure which would decide whether it is true or not. Clearly a statement cannot be tested by observation unless it is an assertion about the results of observation. Every item of physical knowledge must therefore be an assertion of what has been or would be the result of carrying out a specified observational procedure.
In ’Scientific Epistemology', The Philosophy of Physical Science (1938, 2012), 9.
Science quotes on:  |  Accept (192)  |  Carry (127)  |  Carrying Out (13)  |  Conclusion (255)  |  Confidence (68)  |  Court (33)  |  Follow (379)  |  Form (960)  |  Knowledge (1536)  |  Must (1526)  |  Observation (560)  |  Physical (508)  |  Physical Science (101)  |  Procedure (41)  |  Result (678)  |  Science (3880)  |  Statement (142)  |  Supreme (71)  |  Test (212)  |  Truth (1062)

Historical science is not worse, more restricted, or less capable of achieving firm conclusions because experiment, prediction, and subsumption under invariant laws of nature do not represent its usual working methods. The sciences of history use a different mode of explanation, rooted in the comparative and observational richness in our data. We cannot see a past event directly, but science is usually based on inference, not unvarnished observation (you don’t see electrons, gravity, or black holes either).
…...
Science quotes on:  |  Achieve (67)  |  Badly (32)  |  Base (117)  |  Black Hole (17)  |  Black Holes (4)  |  Capable (168)  |  Comparative (13)  |  Conclusion (255)  |  Data (156)  |  Different (577)  |  Directly (22)  |  Do (1908)  |  Electron (95)  |  Event (216)  |  Experiment (696)  |  Explanation (234)  |  Firm (47)  |  Gravity (133)  |  Historical (70)  |  History (675)  |  Inference (45)  |  Invariant (10)  |  Law (895)  |  Less (103)  |  Method (506)  |  Methods (204)  |  Mode (41)  |  More (2559)  |  Nature (1928)  |  Observation (560)  |  Past (337)  |  Prediction (82)  |  Represent (154)  |  Restrict (12)  |  Richness (14)  |  Root (120)  |  Science (3880)  |  See (1082)  |  Subsumption (3)  |  Unvarnished (2)  |  Use (766)  |  Usually (176)  |  Work (1351)

Hubble's observations suggested that there was a time, called the big bang, when the universe was infinitesimally small and infinitely dense. Under such conditions all the laws of science, and therefore all ability to predict the future, would break down. If there were events earlier than this time, then they could not affect what happens at the present time. Their existence can be ignored because it would have no observational consequences. One may say that time had a beginning at the big bang, in the sense that earlier times simply would not be defined. It should be emphasized that this beginning in time is very different from those that had been considered previously. In an unchanging universe a beginning in time is something that has to be imposed by some being outside the universe; there is no physical necessity for a beginning. One can imagine that God created the universe at literally any time in the past. On the other hand, if the universe is expanding, there may be physical reasons why there had to be a beginning. One could still imagine that God created the universe at the instant of the big bang, or even afterwards in just such a way as to make it look as though there had been a big bang, but it would be meaningless to suppose that it was created before the big bang. An expanding universe does not preclude a creator, but it does place limits on when he might have carried out his job!
A Brief History of Time: From the Big Bang to Black Holes (1988), 8-9.
Science quotes on:  |  Ability (153)  |  All (4107)  |  Bang (29)  |  Beginning (305)  |  Being (1278)  |  Big Bang (40)  |  Break (99)  |  Call (769)  |  Condition (357)  |  Consequence (207)  |  Consider (416)  |  Creator (91)  |  Different (577)  |  Down (455)  |  Event (216)  |  Existence (460)  |  Future (432)  |  God (758)  |  Happen (275)  |  Edwin Powell Hubble (20)  |  Imagine (165)  |  Instant (45)  |  Job (82)  |  Law (895)  |  Limit (281)  |  Literally (30)  |  Look (582)  |  Necessity (191)  |  Observation (560)  |  Other (2236)  |  Outside (141)  |  Past (337)  |  Physical (508)  |  Predict (80)  |  Present (620)  |  Reason (744)  |  Say (984)  |  Science (3880)  |  Sense (770)  |  Small (479)  |  Something (719)  |  Still (613)  |  Suppose (156)  |  Time (1877)  |  Universe (861)  |  Way (1216)  |  Why (491)

In this physical world there is no real chaos; all is in fact orderly; all is ordered by the physical principles. Chaos is but unperceived order- it is a word indicating the limitations of the human mind and the paucity of observational facts. The words “chaos,” “accidental,” “chance,” “unpredictable," are conveniences behind which we hide our ignorance.
From Of Stars and Men: The Human Response to an Expanding Universe (1958 Rev. Ed. 1964), Foreword.
Science quotes on:  |  Accident (88)  |  Accidental (27)  |  All (4107)  |  Behind (137)  |  Chance (239)  |  Chaos (91)  |  Convenience (50)  |  Fact (1212)  |  Facts (553)  |  Hide (69)  |  Human (1470)  |  Human Mind (128)  |  Ignorance (240)  |  Indicate (61)  |  Limit (281)  |  Limitation (48)  |  Mind (1339)  |  Observation (560)  |  Order (632)  |  Orderly (38)  |  Paucity (3)  |  Physical (508)  |  Physical World (28)  |  Principle (510)  |  Real (149)  |  Unpredictable (17)  |  Word (622)  |  World (1778)

It has been said that no science is established on a firm basis unless its generalisations can be expressed in terms of number, and it is the special province of mathematics to assist the investigator in finding numerical relations between phenomena. After experiment, then mathematics. While a science is in the experimental or observational stage, there is little scope for discerning numerical relations. It is only after the different workers have “collected data” that the mathematician is able to deduce the required generalisation. Thus a Maxwell followed Faraday and a Newton completed Kepler.
In Higher Mathematics for Students of Chemistry and Physics (1902), 3.
Science quotes on:  |  Assist (9)  |  Basis (173)  |  Collect (16)  |  Complete (204)  |  Completed (30)  |  Data (156)  |  Deduce (25)  |  Different (577)  |  Discern (33)  |  Discerning (16)  |  Establish (57)  |  Experiment (696)  |  Experimental (192)  |  Express (187)  |  Michael Faraday (85)  |  Firm (47)  |  Follow (379)  |  Generalization (57)  |  Investigator (67)  |  Johannes Kepler (92)  |  Little (708)  |  Mathematician (389)  |  Mathematics (1333)  |  Maxwell (42)  |  James Clerk Maxwell (87)  |  Sir Isaac Newton (335)  |  Number (701)  |  Numerical (39)  |  Observation (560)  |  Phenomenon (319)  |  Province (35)  |  Relation (157)  |  Required (108)  |  Science (3880)  |  Scope (44)  |  Special (184)  |  Stage (143)  |  Term (349)  |  Terms (184)  |  Worker (31)

It is also a good rule not to put overmuch confidence in the observational results that are put forward until they are confirmed by theory.
New Pathways in Science (1935), 211.
Science quotes on:  |  Confidence (68)  |  Confirm (57)  |  Forward (102)  |  Good (889)  |  Result (678)  |  Rule (295)  |  Theory (972)

No theory ever agrees with all the facts in its domain, yet it is not always the theory that is to blame. Facts are constituted by older ideologies, and a clash between facts and theories may be proof of progress. It is also a first step in our attempt to find the principles implicit in familiar observational notions.
Against Method: Outline of an Anarchistic Theory of Knowledge (1975, 1993), 39. This is his summary at the head of Chapter 5.
Science quotes on:  |  All (4107)  |  Attempt (251)  |  Blame (30)  |  Domain (69)  |  Fact (1212)  |  Facts (553)  |  Find (999)  |  First (1284)  |  Implicit (12)  |  Notion (113)  |  Principle (510)  |  Progress (468)  |  Proof (289)  |  Step (231)  |  Theory (972)

Quantum theory thus reveals a basic oneness of the universe. It shows that we cannot decompose the world into independently existing smallest units. As we penetrate into matter, nature does not show us any isolated “building blocks,” but rather appears as a complicated web of relations between the various parts of the whole. These relations always include the observer in an essential way. The human observer constitute the final link in the chain of observational processes, and the properties of any atomic object can be understood only in terms of the object’s interaction with the observer.
In The Tao of Physics (1975), 68.
Science quotes on:  |  Appearance (140)  |  Atom (358)  |  Basic (139)  |  Building (156)  |  Building Block (8)  |  Complicated (115)  |  Complication (29)  |  Constitute (97)  |  Decompose (9)  |  Decomposition (18)  |  Essential (200)  |  Final (119)  |  Human (1470)  |  Include (90)  |  Independence (34)  |  Independently (24)  |  Interaction (46)  |  Isolation (31)  |  Matter (801)  |  Nature (1928)  |  Object (422)  |  Observer (43)  |  Oneness (6)  |  Part (222)  |  Penetrate (67)  |  Penetration (18)  |  Process (423)  |  Property (169)  |  Quantum (117)  |  Quantum Theory (66)  |  Relation (157)  |  Reveal (148)  |  Revelation (48)  |  Show (346)  |  Small (479)  |  Term (349)  |  Terms (184)  |  Theory (972)  |  Understood (156)  |  Unit (33)  |  Universe (861)  |  Various (200)  |  Way (1216)  |  Web (16)  |  Whole (738)  |  World (1778)

Science is often regarded as the most objective and truth-directed of human enterprises, and since direct observation is supposed to be the favored route to factuality, many people equate respectable science with visual scrutiny–just the facts ma’am, and palpably before my eyes. But science is a battery of observational and inferential methods, all directed to the testing of propositions that can, in principle, be definitely proven false ... At all scales, from smallest to largest, quickest to slowest, many well-documented conclusions of science lie beyond the strictly limited domain of direct observation. No one has ever seen an electron or a black hole, the events of a picosecond or a geological eon.
…...
Science quotes on:  |  All (4107)  |  Battery (12)  |  Beyond (308)  |  Black Hole (17)  |  Conclusion (255)  |  Definitely (5)  |  Direct (225)  |  Domain (69)  |  Electron (95)  |  Enterprise (54)  |  Eon (11)  |  Equate (3)  |  Event (216)  |  Eye (423)  |  Fact (1212)  |  Facts (553)  |  Factuality (2)  |  False (100)  |  Favor (64)  |  Favored (5)  |  Geological (11)  |  Human (1470)  |  Inferential (2)  |  Large (394)  |  Largest (39)  |  Lie (364)  |  Limit (281)  |  Limited (102)  |  Method (506)  |  Methods (204)  |  Most (1729)  |  Objective (92)  |  Observation (560)  |  Often (106)  |  Palpably (2)  |  People (1005)  |  Principle (510)  |  Proposition (123)  |  Prove (252)  |  Quick (13)  |  Regard (304)  |  Respectable (6)  |  Route (15)  |  Scale (121)  |  Science (3880)  |  Scrutiny (15)  |  See (1082)  |  Slow (101)  |  Small (479)  |  Strictly (13)  |  Suppose (156)  |  Test (212)  |  Truth (1062)  |  Visual (15)

The difference between myth and science is the difference between divine inspiration of “unaided reason” (as Bertrand Russell put it) on the one hand and theories developed in observational contact with the real world on the other. It is the difference between the belief in prophets and critical thinking, between Credo quia absurdum (I believe because it is absurd–Tertullian) and De omnibus est dubitandum (Everything should be questioned–Descartes). To try to write a grand cosmical drama leads necessarily to myth. To try to let knowledge substitute ignorance in increasingly large regions of space and time is science.
In 'Cosmology: Myth or Science?' Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy (1984), 5, 79-98.
Science quotes on:  |  Absurd (59)  |  Belief (578)  |  Contact (65)  |  Cosmology (26)  |  Critical (66)  |  René Descartes (81)  |  Develop (268)  |  Difference (337)  |  Divine (112)  |  Drama (22)  |  Everything (476)  |  Ignorance (240)  |  Inspiration (76)  |  Knowledge (1536)  |  Large (394)  |  Lead (385)  |  Myth (56)  |  Necessarily (135)  |  Observation (560)  |  Other (2236)  |  Prophet (21)  |  Question (622)  |  Real (149)  |  Reason (744)  |  Bertrand Russell (184)  |  Science (3880)  |  Space (501)  |  Space And Time (36)  |  Substitute (46)  |  Theory (972)  |  Thinking (415)  |  Time (1877)  |  Time And Space (39)  |  Try (283)  |  World (1778)  |  Write (231)

The essential fact is simply that all the pictures which science now draws of nature, and which alone seem capable of according with observational facts, are mathematical pictures. … It can hardly be disputed that nature and our conscious mathematical minds work according to the same laws.
In The Mysterious Universe (1930, 1932), 149 & 162.
Science quotes on:  |  According (237)  |  All (4107)  |  Alone (312)  |  Capability (41)  |  Capable (168)  |  Draw (137)  |  Drawing (56)  |  Essential (200)  |  Fact (1212)  |  Facts (553)  |  Law (895)  |  Mathematics (1333)  |  Mind (1339)  |  Nature (1928)  |  Observation (560)  |  Picture (143)  |  Science (3880)  |  Work (1351)

When Big Bang proponents make assertions such as … “the evidence taken together … hangs together beautifully,” they overlook observational facts that have been piling up for 25 years and that have now become overwhelming. Of course, if one ignores contradictory observations, one can claim to have an “elegant” or “robust” theory. But it isn’t science.
In 'Letters: Wrangling Over the Bang', Science News (27 Jul 1991), 140, No. 4, 51. Also quoted in Roy C. Martin, Astronomy on Trial: A Devastating and Complete Repudiation of the Big Bang Fiasco (1999), Appendix I, 217.
Science quotes on:  |  Assertion (32)  |  Bang (29)  |  Become (815)  |  Big Bang (40)  |  Claim (146)  |  Contradictory (7)  |  Course (408)  |  Elegant (36)  |  Evidence (248)  |  Fact (1212)  |  Facts (553)  |  Hang (45)  |  Ignore (46)  |  Observation (560)  |  Overlook (31)  |  Overwhelming (30)  |  Proponent (2)  |  Robust (7)  |  Science (3880)  |  Theory (972)  |  Together (387)  |  Year (932)

[The] first postulate of the Principle of Uniformity, namely, that the laws of nature are invariant with time, is not peculiar to that principle or to geology, but is a common denominator of all science. In fact, instead of being an assumption or an ad hoc hypothesis, it is simply a succinct summation of the totality of all experimental and observational evidence.
'Critique of the Principle of Uniformity', in C. C. Albritton (ed.), Uniformity and Simplicity (1967), 29.
Science quotes on:  |  All (4107)  |  Assumption (92)  |  Being (1278)  |  Common (436)  |  Evidence (248)  |  Experimental (192)  |  Fact (1212)  |  First (1284)  |  Geology (220)  |  Hypothesis (296)  |  Invariant (10)  |  Law (895)  |  Nature (1928)  |  Peculiar (113)  |  Postulate (39)  |  Principle (510)  |  Science (3880)  |  Summation (3)  |  Time (1877)  |  Totality (15)  |  Uniformity (37)


Carl Sagan Thumbnail In science it often happens that scientists say, 'You know that's a really good argument; my position is mistaken,' and then they would actually change their minds and you never hear that old view from them again. They really do it. It doesn't happen as often as it should, because scientists are human and change is sometimes painful. But it happens every day. I cannot recall the last time something like that happened in politics or religion. (1987) -- Carl Sagan
Quotations by:Albert EinsteinIsaac NewtonLord KelvinCharles DarwinSrinivasa RamanujanCarl SaganFlorence NightingaleThomas EdisonAristotleMarie CurieBenjamin FranklinWinston ChurchillGalileo GalileiSigmund FreudRobert BunsenLouis PasteurTheodore RooseveltAbraham LincolnRonald ReaganLeonardo DaVinciMichio KakuKarl PopperJohann GoetheRobert OppenheimerCharles Kettering  ... (more people)

Quotations about:Atomic  BombBiologyChemistryDeforestationEngineeringAnatomyAstronomyBacteriaBiochemistryBotanyConservationDinosaurEnvironmentFractalGeneticsGeologyHistory of ScienceInventionJupiterKnowledgeLoveMathematicsMeasurementMedicineNatural ResourceOrganic ChemistryPhysicsPhysicianQuantum TheoryResearchScience and ArtTeacherTechnologyUniverseVolcanoVirusWind PowerWomen ScientistsX-RaysYouthZoology  ... (more topics)
Sitewide search within all Today In Science History pages:
Visit our Science and Scientist Quotations index for more Science Quotes from archaeologists, biologists, chemists, geologists, inventors and inventions, mathematicians, physicists, pioneers in medicine, science events and technology.

Names index: | A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z |

Categories index: | 1 | 2 | A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z |
- 100 -
Sophie Germain
Gertrude Elion
Ernest Rutherford
James Chadwick
Marcel Proust
William Harvey
Johann Goethe
John Keynes
Carl Gauss
Paul Feyerabend
- 90 -
Antoine Lavoisier
Lise Meitner
Charles Babbage
Ibn Khaldun
Euclid
Ralph Emerson
Robert Bunsen
Frederick Banting
Andre Ampere
Winston Churchill
- 80 -
John Locke
Bronislaw Malinowski
Bible
Thomas Huxley
Alessandro Volta
Erwin Schrodinger
Wilhelm Roentgen
Louis Pasteur
Bertrand Russell
Jean Lamarck
- 70 -
Samuel Morse
John Wheeler
Nicolaus Copernicus
Robert Fulton
Pierre Laplace
Humphry Davy
Thomas Edison
Lord Kelvin
Theodore Roosevelt
Carolus Linnaeus
- 60 -
Francis Galton
Linus Pauling
Immanuel Kant
Martin Fischer
Robert Boyle
Karl Popper
Paul Dirac
Avicenna
James Watson
William Shakespeare
- 50 -
Stephen Hawking
Niels Bohr
Nikola Tesla
Rachel Carson
Max Planck
Henry Adams
Richard Dawkins
Werner Heisenberg
Alfred Wegener
John Dalton
- 40 -
Pierre Fermat
Edward Wilson
Johannes Kepler
Gustave Eiffel
Giordano Bruno
JJ Thomson
Thomas Kuhn
Leonardo DaVinci
Archimedes
David Hume
- 30 -
Andreas Vesalius
Rudolf Virchow
Richard Feynman
James Hutton
Alexander Fleming
Emile Durkheim
Benjamin Franklin
Robert Oppenheimer
Robert Hooke
Charles Kettering
- 20 -
Carl Sagan
James Maxwell
Marie Curie
Rene Descartes
Francis Crick
Hippocrates
Michael Faraday
Srinivasa Ramanujan
Francis Bacon
Galileo Galilei
- 10 -
Aristotle
John Watson
Rosalind Franklin
Michio Kaku
Isaac Asimov
Charles Darwin
Sigmund Freud
Albert Einstein
Florence Nightingale
Isaac Newton


by Ian Ellis
who invites your feedback
Thank you for sharing.
Today in Science History
Sign up for Newsletter
with quiz, quotes and more.