Celebrating 20 Years on the Web
TODAY IN SCIENCE HISTORY ®
Find science on or your birthday

Today in Science History - Quickie Quiz
Who said: “I was going to record talking... the foil was put on; I then shouted 'Mary had a little lamb',... and the machine reproduced it perfectly.”
more quiz questions >>
Home > Dictionary of Science Quotations > Scientist Names Index W > Alfred North Whitehead Quotes > Thought

Thumbnail of Alfred North Whitehead (source)
Alfred North Whitehead
(15 Feb 1861 - 30 Dec 1947)

English mathematician and philosopher who worked in logic, physics, and later in his life spent more time on the philosophy of science and metaphysics. He worked with Bertrand Russell on Principia Mathematica which shows that logic underlies all mathematics.



Algebra reverses the relative importance of the factors in ordinary language. It is essentially a written language, and it endeavors to exemplify in its written structures the patterns which it is its purpose to convey. The pattern of the marks on paper is a particular instance of the pattern to be conveyed to thought. The algebraic method is our best approach to the expression of necessity, by reason of its reduction of accident to the ghost-like character of the real variable.
— Alfred North Whitehead
In Science and Philosophy (1948), 116.
Science quotes on:  |  Accident (88)  |  Algebra (114)  |  Approach (108)  |  Best (459)  |  Character (243)  |  Convey (17)  |  Endeavor (67)  |  Essentially (14)  |  Exemplify (5)  |  Expression (176)  |  Factor (46)  |  Ghost (36)  |  Importance (287)  |  Instance (33)  |  Language (293)  |  Mark (43)  |  Method (506)  |  Necessity (191)  |  Ordinary (160)  |  Paper (183)  |  Particular (76)  |  Pattern (110)  |  Purpose (317)  |  Real (149)  |  Reason (744)  |  Reduction (51)  |  Relative (39)  |  Reverse (33)  |  Structure (346)  |  Thought (954)  |  Variable (34)  |  Write (231)

Culture is activity of thought, and receptiveness to beauty and humane feeling. Scraps of information have nothing to do with it. A merely well informed man is the most useless bore on God’s earth. What we should aim at producing is men who possess both culture and expert knowledge in some special direction.
— Alfred North Whitehead
Opening sentences of Chapter 1,'The Aims of Education', in Aims of Education and Other Essays (1917), 1.
Science quotes on:  |  Activity (210)  |  Aim (165)  |  Beauty (300)  |  Both (494)  |  Culture (143)  |  Direction (175)  |  Do (1908)  |  Earth (998)  |  Expert (65)  |  Feeling (252)  |  God (758)  |  Humane (18)  |  Inform (47)  |  Information (166)  |  Knowledge (1536)  |  Man (2249)  |  Merely (316)  |  Most (1729)  |  Nothing (969)  |  Possess (156)  |  Special (184)  |  Thought (954)

Definition of Mathematics.—It has now become apparent that the traditional field of mathematics in the province of discrete and continuous number can only be separated from the general abstract theory of classes and relations by a wavering and indeterminate line. Of course a discussion as to the mere application of a word easily degenerates into the most fruitless logomachy. It is open to any one to use any word in any sense. But on the assumption that “mathematics” is to denote a science well marked out by its subject matter and its methods from other topics of thought, and that at least it is to include all topics habitually assigned to it, there is now no option but to employ “mathematics” in the general sense of the “science concerned with the logical deduction of consequences from the general premisses of all reasoning.”
— Alfred North Whitehead
In article 'Mathematics', Encyclopedia Britannica (1911, 11th ed.), Vol. 17, 880. In the 2006 DVD edition of the encyclopedia, the definition of mathematics is given as “The science of structure, order, and relation that has evolved from elemental practices of counting, measuring, and describing the shapes of objects.” [Premiss is a variant form of “premise”. —Webmaster]
Science quotes on:  |  Abstract (126)  |  All (4107)  |  Apparent (84)  |  Application (242)  |  Assign (13)  |  Assumption (92)  |  Become (815)  |  Class (164)  |  Concern (228)  |  Consequence (207)  |  Continuous (82)  |  Course (408)  |  Deduction (82)  |  Definition (224)  |  Degenerate (14)  |  Denote (5)  |  Discrete (11)  |  Discussion (73)  |  Employ (113)  |  Field (365)  |  Fruitless (8)  |  General (511)  |  Habitual (3)  |  Include (90)  |  Indeterminate (3)  |  Logic (287)  |  Mark (43)  |  Marked (55)  |  Mathematics (1333)  |  Matter (801)  |  Method (506)  |  Methods (204)  |  Most (1729)  |  Number (701)  |  Open (274)  |  Option (10)  |  Other (2236)  |  Premise (37)  |  Province (35)  |  Reason (744)  |  Reasoning (207)  |  Relation (157)  |  Science (3880)  |  Sense (770)  |  Separate (143)  |  Subject (522)  |  Subject Matter (3)  |  Theory (972)  |  Thought (954)  |  Topic (21)  |  Traditional (15)  |  Use (766)  |  Waver (2)  |  Word (622)

I will not go so far as to say that to construct a history of thought without profound study of the mathematical ideas of successive epochs is like omitting Hamlet from the play which is named after him. That would be claiming too much. But it is certainly analogous to cutting out the part of Ophelia. This simile is singularly exact. For Ophelia is quite essential to the play, she is very charming-and a little mad. Let us grant that the pursuit of mathematics is a divine madness of the human spirit, a refuge from the goading urgency of contingent happenings.
— Alfred North Whitehead
In Science and the Modern World (1926), 31.
Science quotes on:  |  Certainly (185)  |  Claiming (8)  |  Construct (124)  |  Contingent (12)  |  Divine (112)  |  Epoch (45)  |  Essential (200)  |  Grant (73)  |  Hamlet (7)  |  Happening (58)  |  History (675)  |  Human (1470)  |  Idea (845)  |  Little (708)  |  Mad (53)  |  Madness (33)  |  Mathematics (1333)  |  Profound (104)  |  Pursuit (121)  |  Refuge (15)  |  Say (984)  |  Simile (6)  |  Spirit (265)  |  Study (656)  |  Successive (73)  |  Thought (954)  |  Urgency (12)  |  Will (2354)

It is a profoundly erroneous truism, repeated by all copy-books and eminent people when they are making speeches, that we should cultivate habit of thinking of what we are doing. The precise opposite is the case. Civilization advances by extending the number of important operations which we can perform without thinking about them. Operations of thought are like cavalry charges in a battle—they are strictly limited in number, they require fresh horses, and must only be made at decisive moments.
— Alfred North Whitehead
In An Introduction to Mathematics (1911), 61.
Science quotes on:  |  Advance (280)  |  All (4107)  |  Battle (34)  |  Book (394)  |  Cavalry (2)  |  Charge (60)  |  Civilization (206)  |  Copy (33)  |  Decisive (25)  |  Do (1908)  |  Eminence (24)  |  Erroneous (30)  |  Error (321)  |  Fresh (67)  |  Habit (168)  |  Horse (75)  |  Limit (281)  |  Limited (102)  |  Moment (254)  |  Must (1526)  |  Number (701)  |  Operation (213)  |  Operations (107)  |  Opposite (104)  |  People (1005)  |  Perform (121)  |  Precise (68)  |  Require (219)  |  Speech (61)  |  Thinking (415)  |  Thought (954)  |  Truism (4)

It is impossible not to feel stirred at the thought of the emotions of man at certain historic moments of adventure and discovery—Columbus when he first saw the Western shore, Pizarro when he stared at the Pacific Ocean, Franklin when the electric spark came from the string of his kite, Galileo when he first turned his telescope to the heavens. Such moments are also granted to students in the abstract regions of thought, and high among them must be placed the morning when Descartes lay in bed and invented the method of co-ordinate geometry.
— Alfred North Whitehead
Quoted in James Roy Newman, The World of Mathematics (2000), Vol. 1, 239.
Science quotes on:  |  Abstract (126)  |  Adventure (56)  |  Certain (550)  |  Christopher Columbus (16)  |  Coordinate Geometry (2)  |  René Descartes (81)  |  Discovery (785)  |  Electric (76)  |  Electricity (160)  |  Emotion (100)  |  Feel (366)  |  First (1284)  |  Benjamin Franklin (91)  |  Galileo Galilei (125)  |  Geometry (259)  |  Grant (73)  |  Heaven (258)  |  Heavens (125)  |  High (363)  |  Impossible (253)  |  Invention (377)  |  Kite (4)  |  Man (2249)  |  Method (506)  |  Moment (254)  |  Morning (94)  |  Must (1526)  |  Ocean (203)  |  Pacific Ocean (5)  |  Saw (160)  |  Shore (24)  |  Spark (31)  |  Star (430)  |  String (21)  |  Student (301)  |  Telescope (99)  |  Thought (954)  |  Turn (447)  |  Western (45)

It is rigid dogma that destroys truth; and, please notice, my emphasis is not on the dogma, but on the rigidity. When men say of any question, “This is all there is to be known or said of the subject; investigation ends here,” that is death. It may be that the mischief comes not from the thinker but for the use made of his thinking by late-comers. Aristotle, for example, gave us our scientific technique … yet his logical propositions, his instruction in sound reasoning which was bequeathed to Europe, are valid only within the limited framework of formal logic, and, as used in Europe, they stultified the minds of whole generations of mediaeval Schoolmen. Aristotle invented science, but destroyed philosophy.
— Alfred North Whitehead
Dialogues of Alfred North Whitehead, as recorded by Lucien Price (1954, 2001), 165.
Science quotes on:  |  All (4107)  |  Aristotle (173)  |  Death (391)  |  Destroy (180)  |  Dogma (48)  |  End (590)  |  Framework (31)  |  Generation (242)  |  Instruction (91)  |  Investigation (231)  |  Known (454)  |  Late (118)  |  Limit (281)  |  Limited (102)  |  Logic (287)  |  Mind (1339)  |  Mischief (13)  |  Notice (77)  |  Philosophy (382)  |  Please (65)  |  Proposition (123)  |  Question (622)  |  Reasoning (207)  |  Rigid (24)  |  Rigidity (5)  |  Say (984)  |  Science (3880)  |  Scientific (940)  |  Scientific Method (176)  |  Sound (183)  |  Subject (522)  |  Technique (80)  |  Thinker (39)  |  Thinking (415)  |  Thought (954)  |  Truth (1062)  |  Use (766)  |  Whole (738)

Mathematics … is necessarily the foundation of exact thought as applied to natural phenomena.
— Alfred North Whitehead
In An Introduction to Mathematics (1911), 8.
Science quotes on:  |  Applied (176)  |  Apply (160)  |  Exact (68)  |  Foundation (173)  |  Mathematics (1333)  |  Natural (796)  |  Necessarily (135)  |  Necessary (363)  |  Phenomenon (319)  |  Thought (954)

MATHEMATICS … the general term for the various applications of mathematical thought, the traditional field of which is number and quantity. It has been usual to define mathematics as “the science of discrete and continuous magnitude.”
— Alfred North Whitehead
Opening statement in article 'Mathematics', Encyclopedia Britannica (1911, 11th ed.), Vol. 17, 878. Whitehead then indicated this was an inadequate definition, which he then discussed at length and tried to give an improved definition later in the article. See the quote beginning “Definition of Mathematics…” on the Alfred North Whitehead Quotes page on this website.
Science quotes on:  |  Application (242)  |  Continuous (82)  |  Define (49)  |  Discrete (11)  |  Field (365)  |  General (511)  |  Magnitude (83)  |  Mathematics (1333)  |  Number (701)  |  Quantity (132)  |  Science (3880)  |  Term (349)  |  Thought (954)  |  Traditional (15)  |  Various (200)

Philosophy begins in wonder. And, at the end, when philosophic thought has done its best, the wonder remains. There have been added, however, some grasp of the immensity of things, some purification of emotion by understanding.
— Alfred North Whitehead
In Modes of Thought: Six Lectures Delivered in Wellesley College, Massachusetts, and Two Lectures in the University of Chicago (1908, 1938), 168
Science quotes on:  |  Begin (260)  |  Beginning (305)  |  Best (459)  |  Emotion (100)  |  End (590)  |  Immensity (30)  |  Philosophy (382)  |  Purification (7)  |  Remain (349)  |  Remaining (45)  |  Thing (1915)  |  Thought (954)  |  Understanding (514)  |  Wonder (236)

The anxious precision of modern mathematics is necessary for accuracy, … it is necessary for research. It makes for clearness of thought and for fertility in trying new combinations of ideas. When the initial statements are vague and slipshod, at every subsequent stage of thought, common sense has to step in to limit applications and to explain meanings. Now in creative thought common sense is a bad master. Its sole criterion for judgment is that the new ideas shall look like the old ones, in other words it can only act by suppressing originality.
— Alfred North Whitehead
In Introduction to Mathematics (1911), 157.
Science quotes on:  |  Accuracy (78)  |  Act (272)  |  Anxious (3)  |  Application (242)  |  Bad (180)  |  Clearness (11)  |  Combination (144)  |  Common (436)  |  Common Sense (130)  |  Creative (138)  |  Criterion (27)  |  Explain (322)  |  Fertility (19)  |  Idea (845)  |  In Other Words (9)  |  Initial (17)  |  Judgment (132)  |  Limit (281)  |  Look (582)  |  Master (178)  |  Mathematics (1333)  |  Meaning (235)  |  Meanings (5)  |  Modern (385)  |  Modern Mathematics (50)  |  Necessary (363)  |  New (1217)  |  New Ideas (16)  |  Old (480)  |  Originality (19)  |  Other (2236)  |  Precision (68)  |  Research (677)  |  Sense (770)  |  Sole (49)  |  Stage (143)  |  Statement (142)  |  Step (231)  |  Study And Research In Mathematics (61)  |  Subsequent (33)  |  Suppress (6)  |  Thought (954)  |  Try (283)  |  Trying (144)  |  Vague (47)  |  Word (622)

The ideal of mathematics should be to erect a calculus to facilitate reasoning in connection with every province of thought, or of external experience, in which the succession of thoughts, or of events can be definitely ascertained and precisely stated. So that all serious thought which is not philosophy, or inductive reasoning, or imaginative literature, shall be mathematics developed by means of a calculus.
— Alfred North Whitehead
In Universal Algebra (1898), Preface.
Science quotes on:  |  All (4107)  |  Ascertain (38)  |  Calculus (65)  |  Connection (162)  |  Definitely (5)  |  Definitions and Objects of Mathematics (33)  |  Develop (268)  |  Erect (6)  |  Event (216)  |  Experience (470)  |  External (57)  |  Facilitate (5)  |  Ideal (100)  |  Imaginative (8)  |  Inductive (20)  |  Literature (105)  |  Mathematics (1333)  |  Mean (809)  |  Means (580)  |  Philosophy (382)  |  Precisely (92)  |  Province (35)  |  Reason (744)  |  Reasoning (207)  |  Serious (91)  |  State (491)  |  Succession (77)  |  Thought (954)

The invention of the differential calculus marks a crisis in the history of mathematics. The progress of science is divided between periods characterized by a slow accumulation of ideas and periods, when, owing to the new material for thought thus patiently collected, some genius by the invention of a new method or a new point of view, suddenly transforms the whole subject on to a higher level.
— Alfred North Whitehead
In An Introduction to Mathematics (1911), 217. Whitehead continued by quoting the poet, Percy Shelley, who compared the slow accumulation of thoughts leading to an avalanche following the laying down of a great truth. See the poetic quote beginning, “The sun-awakened avalanche…” on the Percy Shelley Quotations page.
Science quotes on:  |  Accumulation (50)  |  Calculus (65)  |  Characterize (20)  |  Collect (16)  |  Crisis (24)  |  Differential Calculus (11)  |  Divide (76)  |  Divided (50)  |  Genius (285)  |  Higher Level (3)  |  History (675)  |  History Of Mathematics (7)  |  Idea (845)  |  Invention (377)  |  Material (353)  |  Mathematics (1333)  |  Method (506)  |  New (1217)  |  Owing (39)  |  Patient (199)  |  Period (198)  |  Point (580)  |  Point Of View (82)  |  Progress (468)  |  Progress Of Science (34)  |  Science (3880)  |  Slow (101)  |  Subject (522)  |  Sudden (66)  |  Suddenly (88)  |  Thought (954)  |  Transform (73)  |  View (488)  |  Whole (738)

The point about zero is that we do not need to use it in the operations of daily life. No one goes out to buy zero fish. It is the most civilized of all the cardinals, and its use is only forced on us by the needs of cultivated modes of thought.
— Alfred North Whitehead
In An Introduction to Mathematics (1911), 63.
Science quotes on:  |  All (4107)  |  Buy (20)  |  Cardinal (9)  |  Civilized (18)  |  Cultivated (7)  |  Daily (87)  |  Daily Life (17)  |  Do (1908)  |  Fish (121)  |  Life (1799)  |  Mode (41)  |  Most (1729)  |  Need (290)  |  Operation (213)  |  Operations (107)  |  Point (580)  |  Thought (954)  |  Use (766)  |  Zero (37)

The point of mathematics is that in it we have always got rid of the particular instance, and even of any particular sorts of entities. So that for example, no mathematical truths apply merely to fish, or merely to stones, or merely to colours. So long as you are dealing with pure mathematics, you are in the realm of complete and absolute abstraction. … Mathematics is thought moving in the sphere of complete abstraction from any particular instance of what it is talking about.
— Alfred North Whitehead
In Science and the Modern World: Lowell Lectures, 1925 (1925), 31.
Science quotes on:  |  Absolute (146)  |  Abstraction (47)  |  Application (242)  |  Apply (160)  |  Color (138)  |  Complete (204)  |  Dealing (10)  |  Entity (35)  |  Fish (121)  |  Instance (33)  |  Long (789)  |  Mathematics (1333)  |  Merely (316)  |  Moving (11)  |  Particular (76)  |  Point (580)  |  Pure (292)  |  Pure Mathematics (67)  |  Realm (85)  |  Rid (13)  |  Sort (49)  |  Sphere (116)  |  Stone (162)  |  Talking (76)  |  Thought (954)  |  Truth (1062)

The point of mathematics is that in it we have always got rid of the particular instance, and even of any particular sorts of entities. So that for example, no mathematical truths apply merely to fish, or merely to stones, or merely to colours. … Mathematics is thought moving in the sphere of complete abstraction from any particular instance of what it is talking about.
— Alfred North Whitehead
In 'Mathematics', Science and the Modern World (1926, 2011), 27.
Science quotes on:  |  Abstraction (47)  |  Apply (160)  |  Color (138)  |  Complete (204)  |  Entity (35)  |  Fish (121)  |  Instance (33)  |  Mathematics (1333)  |  Merely (316)  |  Move (216)  |  Particular (76)  |  Point (580)  |  Rid (13)  |  Sort (49)  |  Sphere (116)  |  Stone (162)  |  Talking (76)  |  Thought (954)  |  Truth (1062)

The progress of Science consists in observing interconnections and in showing with a patient ingenuity that the events of this ever-shifting world are but examples of a few general relations, called laws. To see what is general in what is particular, and what is permanent in what is transitory, is the aim of scientific thought.
— Alfred North Whitehead
In An Introduction to Mathematics (1911), 11.
Science quotes on:  |  Aim (165)  |  Call (769)  |  Called (9)  |  Consist (223)  |  Event (216)  |  Example (94)  |  General (511)  |  Ingenuity (39)  |  Interconnection (12)  |  Law (895)  |  Observing (2)  |  Particular (76)  |  Patient (199)  |  Permanent (64)  |  Progress (468)  |  Progress Of Science (34)  |  Relation (157)  |  Science (3880)  |  Scientific (940)  |  Scientific Thought (17)  |  See (1082)  |  Showing (6)  |  Thought (954)  |  Transitory (4)  |  World (1778)

The results of science are never quite true. By a healthy independence of thought perhaps we sometimes avoid adding other people’s errors to our own.
— Alfred North Whitehead
In 'Space, Time and Relativity', The Aims of Education and Other Essays (1929), 149.
Science quotes on:  |  Avoid (116)  |  Error (321)  |  Healthy (68)  |  Independence (34)  |  Never (1087)  |  Other (2236)  |  People (1005)  |  Result (678)  |  Science (3880)  |  Thought (954)  |  Truth (1062)

The safest general characterization of the European philosophical tradition is that it consists of a series of footnotes to Plato. I do not mean the systematic scheme of thought which scholars have doubtfully extracted from his writings. I allude to the wealth of general ideas scattered through them.
— Alfred North Whitehead
In Process and Reality (1929), 39.
Science quotes on:  |  Characterization (8)  |  Consist (223)  |  Do (1908)  |  Europe (43)  |  Extract (40)  |  Footnote (5)  |  General (511)  |  Idea (845)  |  Mean (809)  |  Philosophy (382)  |  Plato (76)  |  Safest (7)  |  Scheme (57)  |  Scholar (50)  |  Series (149)  |  Systematic (57)  |  Thought (954)  |  Through (849)  |  Tradition (69)  |  Wealth (94)  |  Writing (189)

The vitality of thought is in adventure. Idea's won't keep. Something must be done about them. When the idea is new, its custodians have fervour, live for it, and, if need be, die for it. Their inheritors receive the idea, perhaps now strong and successful, but without inheriting the fervour; so the idea settles down to a comfortable middle age, turns senile, and dies.
— Alfred North Whitehead
In Alfred North Whitehead and Lucien Price (ed.), Dialogues of Alfred North Whitehead (1954, 1977), 100.
Science quotes on:  |  Adventure (56)  |  Age (499)  |  Comfortable (10)  |  Custodian (3)  |  Die (86)  |  Do (1908)  |  Down (455)  |  Fervor (7)  |  Idea (845)  |  Inherit (33)  |  Keep (101)  |  Live (629)  |  Middle Age (18)  |  Must (1526)  |  New (1217)  |  Receive (114)  |  Settle (19)  |  Something (719)  |  Strong (174)  |  Successful (123)  |  Thought (954)  |  Turn (447)  |  Vitality (23)

We forget how strained and paradoxical is the view of nature which modern science imposes on our thoughts.
— Alfred North Whitehead
In Science and the Modern World (1925), 104.
Science quotes on:  |  Forget (117)  |  Forgetting (13)  |  Imposition (5)  |  Modern (385)  |  Modern Science (52)  |  Nature (1928)  |  Paradoxical (3)  |  Science (3880)  |  Strain (11)  |  Thought (954)  |  View (488)


See also:

Carl Sagan Thumbnail In science it often happens that scientists say, 'You know that's a really good argument; my position is mistaken,' and then they would actually change their minds and you never hear that old view from them again. They really do it. It doesn't happen as often as it should, because scientists are human and change is sometimes painful. But it happens every day. I cannot recall the last time something like that happened in politics or religion. (1987) -- Carl Sagan
Quotations by:Albert EinsteinIsaac NewtonLord KelvinCharles DarwinSrinivasa RamanujanCarl SaganFlorence NightingaleThomas EdisonAristotleMarie CurieBenjamin FranklinWinston ChurchillGalileo GalileiSigmund FreudRobert BunsenLouis PasteurTheodore RooseveltAbraham LincolnRonald ReaganLeonardo DaVinciMichio KakuKarl PopperJohann GoetheRobert OppenheimerCharles Kettering  ... (more people)

Quotations about:Atomic  BombBiologyChemistryDeforestationEngineeringAnatomyAstronomyBacteriaBiochemistryBotanyConservationDinosaurEnvironmentFractalGeneticsGeologyHistory of ScienceInventionJupiterKnowledgeLoveMathematicsMeasurementMedicineNatural ResourceOrganic ChemistryPhysicsPhysicianQuantum TheoryResearchScience and ArtTeacherTechnologyUniverseVolcanoVirusWind PowerWomen ScientistsX-RaysYouthZoology  ... (more topics)
Sitewide search within all Today In Science History pages:
Visit our Science and Scientist Quotations index for more Science Quotes from archaeologists, biologists, chemists, geologists, inventors and inventions, mathematicians, physicists, pioneers in medicine, science events and technology.

Names index: | A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z |

Categories index: | 1 | 2 | A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z |
- 100 -
Sophie Germain
Gertrude Elion
Ernest Rutherford
James Chadwick
Marcel Proust
William Harvey
Johann Goethe
John Keynes
Carl Gauss
Paul Feyerabend
- 90 -
Antoine Lavoisier
Lise Meitner
Charles Babbage
Ibn Khaldun
Euclid
Ralph Emerson
Robert Bunsen
Frederick Banting
Andre Ampere
Winston Churchill
- 80 -
John Locke
Bronislaw Malinowski
Bible
Thomas Huxley
Alessandro Volta
Erwin Schrodinger
Wilhelm Roentgen
Louis Pasteur
Bertrand Russell
Jean Lamarck
- 70 -
Samuel Morse
John Wheeler
Nicolaus Copernicus
Robert Fulton
Pierre Laplace
Humphry Davy
Thomas Edison
Lord Kelvin
Theodore Roosevelt
Carolus Linnaeus
- 60 -
Francis Galton
Linus Pauling
Immanuel Kant
Martin Fischer
Robert Boyle
Karl Popper
Paul Dirac
Avicenna
James Watson
William Shakespeare
- 50 -
Stephen Hawking
Niels Bohr
Nikola Tesla
Rachel Carson
Max Planck
Henry Adams
Richard Dawkins
Werner Heisenberg
Alfred Wegener
John Dalton
- 40 -
Pierre Fermat
Edward Wilson
Johannes Kepler
Gustave Eiffel
Giordano Bruno
JJ Thomson
Thomas Kuhn
Leonardo DaVinci
Archimedes
David Hume
- 30 -
Andreas Vesalius
Rudolf Virchow
Richard Feynman
James Hutton
Alexander Fleming
Emile Durkheim
Benjamin Franklin
Robert Oppenheimer
Robert Hooke
Charles Kettering
- 20 -
Carl Sagan
James Maxwell
Marie Curie
Rene Descartes
Francis Crick
Hippocrates
Michael Faraday
Srinivasa Ramanujan
Francis Bacon
Galileo Galilei
- 10 -
Aristotle
John Watson
Rosalind Franklin
Michio Kaku
Isaac Asimov
Charles Darwin
Sigmund Freud
Albert Einstein
Florence Nightingale
Isaac Newton


by Ian Ellis
who invites your feedback
Thank you for sharing.
Today in Science History
Sign up for Newsletter
with quiz, quotes and more.