Celebrating 19 Years on the Web
TODAY IN SCIENCE HISTORY ®
Find science on or your birthday

Today in Science History - Quickie Quiz
Who said: “I have no satisfaction in formulas unless I feel their arithmetical magnitude.”
more quiz questions >>
Home > Category Index for Science Quotations > Category Index T > Category: Transfer

Transfer Quotes (20 quotes)

Education is a mechanism for inducing change and for providing the means of accommodation and adjustment to change. At the same time, as an institution, education is given the responsibility for insuring the preservation and transfer and therefore, the continuity of society’s knowledge, skills, and values.
As quoted by Luther H. Evans and George E. Arnstein (eds.), in Automation and the Challenge to Education: Proceedings of a Symposium (1962).
Science quotes on:  |   (2863)  |  Accommodation (9)  |  Adjustment (20)  |  Change (593)  |  Continuity (38)  |  Education (378)  |  Induce (22)  |  Institution (69)  |  Insure (4)  |  Knowledge (1529)  |  Mean (809)  |  Means (579)  |  Mechanism (96)  |  Preservation (33)  |  Provide (69)  |  Responsibility (66)  |  Skill (109)  |  Society (326)  |  Time (1877)  |  Value (365)

Fertilization of mammalian eggs is followed by successive cell divisions and progressive differentiation, first into the early embryo and subsequently into all of the cell types that make up the adult animal. Transfer of a single nucleus at a specific stage of development, to an enucleated unfertilized egg, provided an opportunity to investigate whether cellular differentiation to that stage involved irreversible genetic modification. The first offspring to develop from a differentiated cell were born after nuclear transfer from an embryo-derived cell line that had been induced to became quiescent. Using the same procedure, we now report the birth of live lambs from three new cell populations established from adult mammary gland, fetus and embryo. The fact that a lamb was derived from an adult cell confirms that differentiation of that cell did not involve the irreversible modification of genetic material required far development to term. The birth of lambs from differentiated fetal and adult cells also reinforces previous speculation that by inducing donor cells to became quiescent it will be possible to obtain normal development from a wide variety of differentiated cells.
[Co-author of paper announcing the cloned sheep, ‘Dolly’.]
In I. Wilmut, A. E. Schnieke, J. McWhir, et al., 'Viable Offspring Derived from Petal and Adult Mammalian Cells', Nature (1997), 385, 810.
Science quotes on:  |  All (4108)  |  Animal (617)  |  Author (167)  |  Birth (147)  |  Cell Division (5)  |  Clone (8)  |  Confirm (57)  |  Develop (268)  |  Development (422)  |  Differentiation (25)  |  Division (65)  |  Dolly (2)  |  Early (185)  |  Egg (69)  |  Embryo (28)  |  Fact (1210)  |  Fertilization (15)  |  First (1283)  |  Follow (378)  |  Genetic (108)  |  Genetics (101)  |  Gland (14)  |  Investigate (103)  |  Involve (90)  |  Involved (90)  |  Irreversible (12)  |  Lamb (6)  |  Live (628)  |  Mammal (37)  |  Material (353)  |  Modification (55)  |  New (1216)  |  Nuclear (107)  |  Nucleus (49)  |  Obtain (163)  |  Offspring (27)  |  Opportunity (87)  |  Paper (182)  |  Population (110)  |  Possible (552)  |  Procedure (41)  |  Reinforce (5)  |  Required (108)  |  Single (353)  |  Specific (95)  |  Speculation (126)  |  Stage (143)  |  Successive (73)  |  Term (349)  |  Type (167)  |  Variety (132)  |  Wide (96)  |  Will (2355)

I have mentioned mathematics as a way to settle in the mind a habit of reasoning closely and in train; not that I think it necessary that all men should be deep mathematicians, but that, having got the way of reasoning which that study necessarily brings the mind to, they might be able to transfer it to other parts of knowledge, as they shall have occasion. For in all sorts of reasoning, every single argument should be managed as a mathematical demonstration; the connection and dependence of ideas should be followed till the mind is brought to the source on which it bottoms, and observes the coherence all along; …
In The Conduct of the Understanding, Sect. 7.
Science quotes on:  |  All (4108)  |  Argument (138)  |  Bottom (33)  |  Bring (90)  |  Closely (12)  |  Coherence (13)  |  Connection (162)  |  Deep (233)  |  Demonstration (113)  |  Dependence (45)  |  Follow (378)  |  Habit (168)  |  Idea (843)  |  Knowledge (1529)  |  Manage (23)  |  Mathematician (387)  |  Mathematics (1328)  |  Mention (82)  |  Mind (1338)  |  Necessarily (135)  |  Necessary (363)  |  Observe (168)  |  Occasion (85)  |  Other (2236)  |  Part (222)  |  Reason (744)  |  Reasoning (207)  |  Settle (19)  |  Single (353)  |  Sort (49)  |  Source (93)  |  Study (653)  |  Think (1086)  |  Train (114)  |  Value Of Mathematics (60)  |  Way (1217)

If it were possible to transfer the methods of physical or of biological science directly to the study of man, the transfer would long ago have been made ... We have failed not for lack of hypotheses which equate man with the rest of the universe, but for lack of a hypothesis (short of animism) which provides for the peculiar divergence of man ... Let me now state my belief that the peculiar factor in man which forbids our explaining his actions upon the ordinary plane of biology is a highly specialized and unstable biological complex, and that this factor is none other than language.
Linguistics as a Science (1930), 555.
Science quotes on:  |  Action (327)  |  Belief (578)  |  Biological (137)  |  Biology (216)  |  Complex (188)  |  Divergence (6)  |  Fail (185)  |  Forbid (14)  |  Hypothesis (296)  |  Lack (119)  |  Language (293)  |  Long (790)  |  Man (2251)  |  Method (505)  |  Methods (204)  |  Ordinary (160)  |  Other (2236)  |  Peculiar (113)  |  Physical (508)  |  Possible (552)  |  Rest (280)  |  Science (3879)  |  Short (197)  |  State (491)  |  Study (653)  |  Universe (857)

If the man of science chose to follow the example of historians and pulpit-orators, and to obscure strange and peculiar phenomena by employing a hollow pomp of big and sounding words, this would be his opportunity; for we have approached one of the greatest mysteries which surround the problem of animated nature and distinguish it above all other problems of science. To discover the relations of man and woman to the egg-cell would be almost equivalent of the egg-cell in the body of the mother, the transfer to it by means of the seed, of the physical and mental characteristics of the father, affect all the questions which the human mind has ever raised in regard to existence.
Quoted in Ernst Heinrich Philipp August Haeckel, The Evolution of Man (1897), vol 1, 148.
Science quotes on:  |  All (4108)  |  Approach (108)  |  Body (537)  |  Characteristic (148)  |  Discover (553)  |  Distinguish (160)  |  Egg (69)  |  Embryo (28)  |  Equivalent (45)  |  Existence (456)  |  Father (110)  |  Follow (378)  |  Greatest (328)  |  Historian (54)  |  Human (1468)  |  Human Mind (128)  |  Man (2251)  |  Mean (809)  |  Means (579)  |  Mental (177)  |  Mind (1338)  |  Mother (114)  |  Nature (1926)  |  Obscure (62)  |  Opportunity (87)  |  Other (2236)  |  Peculiar (113)  |  Physical (508)  |  Problem (676)  |  Question (621)  |  Regard (305)  |  Science (3879)  |  Seed (93)  |  Strange (157)  |  Woman (151)  |  Word (619)

In Darwin’s theory, you just have to substitute ‘mutations’ for his ‘slight accidental variations’ (just as quantum theory substitutes ‘quantum jump’ for ‘continuous transfer of energy’). In all other respects little change was necessary in Darwin’s theory.
…...
Science quotes on:  |   (2863)  |  Accidental (27)  |  All (4108)  |  Change (593)  |  Continuous (82)  |  Darwins (5)  |  Energy (344)  |  Jump (29)  |  Little (707)  |  Mutation (37)  |  Necessary (363)  |  Other (2236)  |  Quantum (117)  |  Quantum Theory (66)  |  Respect (207)  |  Slight (31)  |  Substitute (46)  |  Theory (970)  |  Variation (90)

It is one of the laws of life that each acquisition has its cost. No organism can exercise power without yielding up part of its substance. The physiological law of Transfer of Energy is the basis of human success and happiness. There is no action without expenditure of energy and if energy be not expended the power to generate it is lost. This law shows itself in a thousand ways in the life of man. The arm which is not used becomes palsied. The wealth which comes by chance weakens and destroys. The good which is unused turns to evil. The charity which asks no effort cannot relieve the misery she creates.
In The Strength of Being Clean: A Study of the Quest for Unearned Happiness (1900), 6.
Science quotes on:  |  Acquisition (45)  |  Action (327)  |  Arm (81)  |  Ask (411)  |  Basis (173)  |  Become (815)  |  Chance (239)  |  Charity (11)  |  Cost (86)  |  Create (235)  |  Destroy (180)  |  Effort (227)  |  Energy (344)  |  Evil (116)  |  Exercise (110)  |  Expend (3)  |  Expenditure (15)  |  Generate (16)  |  Good (889)  |  Happiness (115)  |  Human (1468)  |  Law (894)  |  Life (1795)  |  Lost (34)  |  Man (2251)  |  Misery (30)  |  Organism (220)  |  Palsy (3)  |  Part (222)  |  Physiological (62)  |  Power (746)  |  Relieve (5)  |  Show (346)  |  Substance (248)  |  Success (302)  |  Thousand (331)  |  Turn (447)  |  Way (1217)  |  Weaken (4)  |  Wealth (94)  |  Yield (81)

It’s as important an event as would be the transfer of the Vatican from Rome to the New World. The Pope of Physics has moved and the United States will now become the center of the natural sciences.
on Albert Einstein’s move to Princeton, New Jersey, from Germany in 1933, in Brighter Than a Thousand Suns by Robert Jungk (1958).
Science quotes on:  |   (2863)  |  Become (815)  |  Event (216)  |  Natural (796)  |  Natural Science (128)  |  New (1216)  |  Physic (517)  |  Physics (533)  |  Pope (10)  |  Rome (19)  |  Science (3879)  |  State (491)  |  Vatican (3)  |  Will (2355)  |  World (1774)

My own thinking (and that of many of my colleagues) is based on two general principles, which I shall call the Sequence Hypothesis and the Central Dogma. The direct evidence for both of them is negligible, but I have found them to be of great help in getting to grips with these very complex problems. I present them here in the hope that others can make similar use of them. Their speculative nature is emphasized by their names. It is an instructive exercise to attempt to build a useful theory without using them. One generally ends in the wilderness.
The Sequence Hypothesis
This has already been referred to a number of times. In its simplest form it assumes that the specificity of a piece of nucleic acid is expressed solely by the sequence of its bases, and that this sequence is a (simple) code for the amino acid sequence of a particular protein...
The Central Dogma
This states that once 'information' has passed into protein it cannot get out again. In more detail, the transfer of information from nucleic acid to nucleic acid, or from nucleic acid to protein may be possible, but transfer from protein to protein, or from protein to nucleic acid is impossible. Information means here the precise determination of sequence, either of bases in the nucleic acid or of amino acid residues in the protein. This is by no means universally held—Sir Macfarlane Burnet, for example, does not subscribe to it—but many workers now think along these lines. As far as I know it has not been explicitly stated before.
'On Protein Synthesis', Symposia of the Society for Experimental Biology: The Biological Replication of Macromolecules, 1958, 12, 152-3.
Science quotes on:  |  Acid (83)  |  Already (222)  |  Attempt (251)  |  Base (117)  |  Both (493)  |  Build (204)  |  Call (769)  |  Central (80)  |  Code (31)  |  Colleague (50)  |  Complex (188)  |  Detail (146)  |  Determination (78)  |  Direct (225)  |  DNA (77)  |  Dogma (48)  |  End (590)  |  Evidence (248)  |  Exercise (110)  |  Express (186)  |  Form (959)  |  General (511)  |  Great (1574)  |  Hope (299)  |  Hypothesis (296)  |  Impossible (251)  |  Information (166)  |  Know (1518)  |  Mean (809)  |  Means (579)  |  Molecular Biology (27)  |  More (2559)  |  Name (333)  |  Nature (1926)  |  Negligible (5)  |  Nucleic Acid (23)  |  Number (699)  |  Other (2236)  |  Pass (238)  |  Possible (552)  |  Precise (68)  |  Present (619)  |  Principle (507)  |  Problem (676)  |  Protein (54)  |  Residue (9)  |  Sequence (68)  |  Simple (406)  |  State (491)  |  Theory (970)  |  Think (1086)  |  Thinking (414)  |  Time (1877)  |  Two (937)  |  Use (766)  |  Useful (250)  |  Wilderness (45)

Suppose we take a quantity of heat and change it into work. In doing so, we haven’t destroyed the heat, we have only transferred it to another place or perhaps changed it into another energy form.
From 'In the Game of Energy and Thermodynamics You Can’t Even Break Even', Smithsonian (Aug 1970), 1, No. 5, 6.
Science quotes on:  |  Change (593)  |  Conservation Of Energy (29)  |  Destroy (180)  |  Doing (280)  |  Energy (344)  |  Form (959)  |  Heat (174)  |  Quantity (132)  |  Suppose (156)  |  Thermodynamics (40)  |  Work (1351)

The belief that mathematics, because it is abstract, because it is static and cold and gray, is detached from life, is a mistaken belief. Mathematics, even in its purest and most abstract estate, is not detached from life. It is just the ideal handling of the problems of life, as sculpture may idealize a human figure or as poetry or painting may idealize a figure or a scene. Mathematics is precisely the ideal handling of the problems of life, and the central ideas of the science, the great concepts about which its stately doctrines have been built up, are precisely the chief ideas with which life must always deal and which, as it tumbles and rolls about them through time and space, give it its interests and problems, and its order and rationality. That such is the case a few indications will suffice to show. The mathematical concepts of constant and variable are represented familiarly in life by the notions of fixedness and change. The concept of equation or that of an equational system, imposing restriction upon variability, is matched in life by the concept of natural and spiritual law, giving order to what were else chaotic change and providing partial freedom in lieu of none at all. What is known in mathematics under the name of limit is everywhere present in life in the guise of some ideal, some excellence high-dwelling among the rocks, an “ever flying perfect” as Emerson calls it, unto which we may approximate nearer and nearer, but which we can never quite attain, save in aspiration. The supreme concept of functionality finds its correlate in life in the all-pervasive sense of interdependence and mutual determination among the elements of the world. What is known in mathematics as transformation—that is, lawful transfer of attention, serving to match in orderly fashion the things of one system with those of another—is conceived in life as a process of transmutation by which, in the flux of the world, the content of the present has come out of the past and in its turn, in ceasing to be, gives birth to its successor, as the boy is father to the man and as things, in general, become what they are not. The mathematical concept of invariance and that of infinitude, especially the imposing doctrines that explain their meanings and bear their names—What are they but mathematicizations of that which has ever been the chief of life’s hopes and dreams, of that which has ever been the object of its deepest passion and of its dominant enterprise, I mean the finding of the worth that abides, the finding of permanence in the midst of change, and the discovery of a presence, in what has seemed to be a finite world, of being that is infinite? It is needless further to multiply examples of a correlation that is so abounding and complete as indeed to suggest a doubt whether it be juster to view mathematics as the abstract idealization of life than to regard life as the concrete realization of mathematics.
In 'The Humanization of Teaching of Mathematics', Science, New Series, 35, 645-46.
Science quotes on:  |   (2863)  |  Abide (12)  |  Abound (17)  |  Abstract (124)  |  All (4108)  |  Approximate (25)  |  Aspiration (32)  |  Attain (125)  |  Attention (190)  |  Bear (159)  |  Become (815)  |  Being (1278)  |  Belief (578)  |  Birth (147)  |  Boy (94)  |  Build (204)  |  Call (769)  |  Case (99)  |  Cease (79)  |  Central (80)  |  Change (593)  |  Chaotic (2)  |  Chief (97)  |  Cold (112)  |  Complete (204)  |  Conceive (98)  |  Concept (221)  |  Concrete (51)  |  Constant (144)  |  Content (69)  |  Correlate (6)  |  Correlation (18)  |  Deal (188)  |  Deep (233)  |  Detach (5)  |  Determination (78)  |  Discovery (780)  |  Doctrine (75)  |  Dominant (26)  |  Doubt (304)  |  Dream (208)  |  Element (310)  |  Ralph Waldo Emerson (150)  |  Enterprise (54)  |  Equation (132)  |  Especially (31)  |  Estate (5)  |  Everywhere (94)  |  Example (94)  |  Excellence (39)  |  Explain (322)  |  Far (154)  |  Fashion (30)  |  Father (110)  |  Figure (160)  |  Find (998)  |  Finite (59)  |  Fixed (17)  |  Flux (21)  |  Fly (146)  |  Flying (72)  |  Freedom (129)  |  Functionality (2)  |  General (511)  |  Give (202)  |  Gray (8)  |  Great (1574)  |  Guise (5)  |  Handle (28)  |  High (362)  |  Hope (299)  |  Human (1468)  |  Idea (843)  |  Ideal (99)  |  Idealization (3)  |  Impose (22)  |  Indeed (324)  |  Indication (33)  |  Infinite (231)  |  Infinitude (3)  |  Interdependence (4)  |  Interest (386)  |  Invariance (4)  |  Know (1518)  |  Known (454)  |  Law (894)  |  Lawful (7)  |  Life (1795)  |  Limit (280)  |  Man (2251)  |  Match (29)  |  Mathematics (1328)  |  Mean (809)  |  Meaning (233)  |  Meanings (5)  |  Midst (7)  |  Mistake (169)  |  Most (1731)  |  Multiply (37)  |  Must (1526)  |  Mutual (52)  |  Name (333)  |  Natural (796)  |  Nature Of Mathematics (80)  |  Nearer (45)  |  Needless (4)  |  Never (1087)  |  Notion (113)  |  Object (422)  |  Order (632)  |  Orderly (38)  |  Painting (44)  |  Partial (10)  |  Passion (114)  |  Past (337)  |  Perfect (216)  |  Permanence (24)  |  Pervasive (5)  |  Poetry (143)  |  Precisely (92)  |  Presence (63)  |  Present (619)  |  Problem (676)  |  Process (423)  |  Provide (69)  |  Pure (291)  |  Rationality (24)  |  Realization (43)  |  Regard (305)  |  Represent (155)  |  Restriction (11)  |  Rock (161)  |  Roll (40)  |  Save (118)  |  Scene (36)  |  Science (3879)  |  Sculpture (12)  |  Seem (145)  |  Sense (770)  |  Serve (59)  |  Serving (15)  |  Show (346)  |  Space (500)  |  Spiritual (91)  |  Stately (12)  |  Static (8)  |  Successor (14)  |  Suffice (7)  |  Suggest (34)  |  Supreme (71)  |  System (537)  |  Thing (1915)  |  Through (849)  |  Time (1877)  |  Time And Space (39)  |  Transformation (69)  |  Transmutation (22)  |  Tumble (2)  |  Turn (447)  |  Unto (8)  |  Variability (5)  |  Variable (34)  |  View (488)  |  Will (2355)  |  World (1774)  |  Worth (169)

The primitive history of the species is all the more fully retained in its germ-history in proportion as the series of embryonic forms traversed is longer; and it is more accurately retained the less the mode of life of the recent forms differs from that of the earlier, and the less the peculiarities of the several embryonic states must be regarded as transferred from a later to an earlier period of life, or as acquired independently. (1864)
As translated and quoted in Ernst Haeckel and E. Ray Lankester (trans.) as epigraph for Chap. 13, The History of Creation (1886), Vol. 1, 406.
Science quotes on:  |  Acquire (39)  |  Acquired (78)  |  All (4108)  |  Differ (85)  |  Difference (337)  |  Earlier (9)  |  Embryonic (6)  |  Form (959)  |  Germ (53)  |  History (673)  |  Independently (24)  |  Later (18)  |  Life (1795)  |  More (2559)  |  Must (1526)  |  Peculiarity (25)  |  Period (198)  |  Primitive (75)  |  Proportion (136)  |  Recent (77)  |  Regard (305)  |  Retain (56)  |  Series (149)  |  Species (401)  |  State (491)  |  Traverse (5)

The sun has lost no beams, the earth no elements ; gravity is as adhesive, heat as expansive, light as joyful, air as virtuous, water as medicinal as on the first day. There is no loss, only transference. When the heat is less here it is not lost, but more heat is there.
In 'Perpetual Forces', North American Review (1877), No. 125. Collected in Ralph Waldo Emerson and James Elliot Cabot (ed.), Lectures and Biographical Sketches (1883), 61.
Science quotes on:  |  Adhesive (2)  |  Air (347)  |  Beam (24)  |  Conservation Of Energy (29)  |  Earth (996)  |  Element (310)  |  Expansive (5)  |  First (1283)  |  Gravity (132)  |  Heat (174)  |  Light (607)  |  Loss (110)  |  Medicine (378)  |  More (2559)  |  Sun (385)  |  Virtuous (9)  |  Water (481)

The sun's rays are the ultimate source of almost every motion which takes place on the surface of the earth. By their heat are produced all winds, and those disturbances in the electric equilibrium of the atmosphere which give rise to the phenomena of terrestrial magnetism. By their vivifying action vegetables are elaborated from inorganic matter, and become in their turn the support of animals and of man, and the sources of those great deposits of dynamical efficiency which are laid up for human use in our coal strata. By them the waters of the sea are made to circulate in vapor through the air, and irrigate the land, producing springs and rivers. By them are produced all disturbances of the chemical equilibrium of the elements of nature which, by a series of compositions and decompositions, give rise to new products, and originate a transfer of materials. Even the slow degradation of the solid constituents of the surface, in which its chief geological changes consist, and their diffusion among the waters of the ocean, are entirely due to the abrasion of the wind, rain, and tides, which latter, however, are only in part the effect of solar influence and the alternate action of the seasons.
from Outlines of Astronomy (1849), 237.
Science quotes on:  |   (2863)  |  Action (327)  |  Air (347)  |  All (4108)  |  Animal (617)  |  Atmosphere (103)  |  Become (815)  |  Change (593)  |  Chemical (292)  |  Chief (97)  |  Coal (57)  |  Composition (84)  |  Consist (223)  |  Constituent (45)  |  Decomposition (18)  |  Degradation (17)  |  Diffusion (13)  |  Disturbance (31)  |  Due (141)  |  Dynamical (15)  |  Earth (996)  |  Effect (393)  |  Efficiency (44)  |  Elaborated (7)  |  Electric (76)  |  Element (310)  |  Equilibrium (33)  |  Great (1574)  |  Heat (174)  |  Human (1468)  |  Influence (222)  |  Magnetism (41)  |  Man (2251)  |  Material (353)  |  Matter (798)  |  Motion (310)  |  Nature (1926)  |  New (1216)  |  Ocean (202)  |  Originate (36)  |  Photosynthesis (19)  |  Produced (187)  |  Product (160)  |  Rain (62)  |  Ray (114)  |  Rise (166)  |  River (119)  |  Sea (308)  |  Season (47)  |  Series (149)  |  Slow (101)  |  Solar Energy (20)  |  Solid (116)  |  Spring (133)  |  Strata (35)  |  Sun (385)  |  Support (147)  |  Surface (209)  |  Surface Of The Earth (36)  |  Terrestrial (61)  |  Through (849)  |  Tide (34)  |  Turn (447)  |  Ultimate (144)  |  Use (766)  |  Vapor (12)  |  Vegetable (46)  |  Water (481)  |  Weather (44)  |  Wind (128)

The thermal agency by which mechanical effect may be obtained is the transference of heat from one body to another at a lower temperature.
'Réflexions sur la puissance motrice du feu' (1824) translated by R.H. Thurston in Reflections on the Motive Power of Fire, and on Machines Fitted to Develop that Power (1890), 139.
Science quotes on:  |  Agency (14)  |  Body (537)  |  Effect (393)  |  Heat (174)  |  Mechanical (140)  |  Mechanics (131)  |  Obtain (163)  |  Temperature (79)  |  Thermal (15)

There are three reasons why, quite apart from scientific considerations, mankind needs to travel in space. The first reason is garbage disposal; we need to transfer industrial processes into space so that the earth may remain a green and pleasant place for our grandchildren to live in. The second reason is to escape material impoverishment; the resources of this planet are finite, and we shall not forgo forever the abundance of solar energy and minerals and living space that are spread out all around us. The third reason is our spiritual need for an open frontier. The ultimate purpose of space travel is to bring to humanity, not only scientific discoveries and an occasional spectacular show on television, but a real expansion of our spirit.
In Disturbing the Universe (1979).
Science quotes on:  |  Abundance (25)  |  All (4108)  |  Consideration (139)  |  Earth (996)  |  Energy (344)  |  Escape (80)  |  Expansion (41)  |  Finite (59)  |  First (1283)  |  Forever (103)  |  Forgo (4)  |  Frontier (38)  |  Garbage (8)  |  Green (63)  |  Humanity (169)  |  Live (628)  |  Living (491)  |  Mankind (339)  |  Material (353)  |  Mineral (59)  |  Occasional (22)  |  Open (274)  |  Planet (356)  |  Purpose (317)  |  Reason (744)  |  Remain (349)  |  Scientific (941)  |  Show (346)  |  Solar Energy (20)  |  Space (500)  |  Space Travel (19)  |  Spectacular (18)  |  Spirit (265)  |  Spiritual (91)  |  Spread (83)  |  Television (30)  |  Travel (114)  |  Ultimate (144)  |  Why (491)

These results demonstrate that there is a new polymerase inside the virions of RNA tumour viruses. It is not present in supernatents of normal cells but is present in virions of avian sarcoma and leukemia RNA tumour viruses. The polymerase seems to catalyse the incorporation of deoxyrinonucleotide triphosphates into DNA from an RNA template. Work is being performed to characterize further the reaction and the product. If the present results and Baltimore's results with Rauscher leukemia virus are upheld, they will constitute strong evidence that the DNA proviruses have a DNA genome when they are in virions. This result would have strong implications for theories of viral carcinogenesis and, possibly, for theories of information transfer in other biological systems. [Co-author with American virologist Satoshi Mizutani]
'RNA-dependent DNA Polymerase in Virions of Rous Sarcoma Virus', Nature (1970), 226, 1213.
Science quotes on:  |   (2863)  |  Author (167)  |  David Baltimore (2)  |  Being (1278)  |  Biological (137)  |  Carcinogenesis (2)  |  Catalysis (7)  |  Cell (138)  |  Characterization (8)  |  Constitute (97)  |  Demonstrate (76)  |  Demonstration (113)  |  DNA (77)  |  Evidence (248)  |  Genome (15)  |  Implication (23)  |  Incorporation (4)  |  Information (166)  |  Leukemia (4)  |  New (1216)  |  Normal (28)  |  Other (2236)  |  Perform (121)  |  Performance (48)  |  Possibly (111)  |  Present (619)  |  Product (160)  |  Reaction (104)  |  Result (677)  |  RNA (4)  |  Strong (174)  |  System (537)  |  Theory (970)  |  Tumour (2)  |  Virus (27)  |  Will (2355)  |  Work (1351)

We should first look at the evidence that DNA itself is not the direct template that orders amino acid sequences. Instead, the genetic information of DNA is transferred to another class of molecules which then serve as the protein templates. These intermediate templates are molecules of ribonucleic acid (RNA), large polymeric molecules chemically very similar to DNA. Their relation to DNA and protein is usually summarized by the central dogma, a How scheme for genetic information first proposed some twenty years ago.
In Molecular Biology of the Gene (1965), 281-282.
Science quotes on:  |  Acid (83)  |  Amino Acid (11)  |  Biochemistry (49)  |  Central (80)  |  Class (164)  |  Direct (225)  |  DNA (77)  |  Dogma (48)  |  Evidence (248)  |  First (1283)  |  Genetic (108)  |  Information (166)  |  Intermediate (37)  |  Large (394)  |  Look (582)  |  Molecule (174)  |  Order (632)  |  Polymer (4)  |  Protein (54)  |  RNA (4)  |  Scheme (57)  |  Sequence (68)  |  Summarize (10)  |  Template (3)  |  Usually (176)  |  Year (933)

What these two sciences of recognition, evolution and immunology, have in common is not found in nonbiological systems such as 'evolving' stars. Such physical systems can be explained in terms of energy transfer, dynamics, causes, and even 'information transfer'. But they do not exhibit repertoires of variants ready for interaction by selection to give a population response according to a hereditary principle. The application of a selective principle in a recognition system, by the way, does not necessarily mean that genes must be involved—it simply means that any state resulting after selection is highly correlated in structure with the one that gave rise to it and that the correlation continues to be propagated. Nor is it the case that selection cannot itself introduce variation. But a constancy or 'memory' of selected events is necessary. If changes occurred so fast that what was selected could not emerge in the population or was destroyed, a recognition system would not survive. Physics proper does not deal with recognition systems, which are by their nature biological and historical systems. But all the laws of physics nevertheless apply to recognition systems.
Bright and Brilliant Fire, On the Matters of the Mind (1992), 79.
Science quotes on:  |  According (237)  |  All (4108)  |  Application (242)  |  Apply (160)  |  Biological (137)  |  Cause (541)  |  Change (593)  |  Common (436)  |  Constancy (12)  |  Continue (165)  |  Correlation (18)  |  Deal (188)  |  Destroy (180)  |  Do (1908)  |  Energy (344)  |  Event (216)  |  Evolution (590)  |  Explain (322)  |  Gene (98)  |  Historical (70)  |  Immunology (14)  |  Information (166)  |  Interaction (46)  |  Introduce (63)  |  Involved (90)  |  Law (894)  |  Mean (809)  |  Means (579)  |  Memory (134)  |  Must (1526)  |  Nature (1926)  |  Necessarily (135)  |  Necessary (363)  |  Neurobiology (4)  |  Nevertheless (90)  |  Physic (517)  |  Physical (508)  |  Physics (533)  |  Population (110)  |  Principle (507)  |  Proper (144)  |  Recognition (88)  |  Response (53)  |  Rise (166)  |  Science (3879)  |  Select (44)  |  Selection (128)  |  Selective (19)  |  Star (427)  |  Stars (304)  |  State (491)  |  Structure (344)  |  Survive (79)  |  System (537)  |  Term (349)  |  Terms (184)  |  Two (937)  |  Variant (9)  |  Variation (90)  |  Way (1217)

[Reply to a lady enquiring: “Have we lost faith?”] Certainly not, but we have only transferred it from God to the General Medical Council.
Invited to contribute to a series of article in a Manchester paper in reply to an enquiry [Have we lost faith?] the question, Shaws’s reply was the single sentence. In The Collected Works of Bernard Shaw (1930), Vol.22, 1.
Science quotes on:  |  Certainly (185)  |  Council (8)  |  Faith (203)  |  General (511)  |  God (757)  |  Loss (110)  |  Medicine (378)  |  Physician (273)  |  Reply (56)


Carl Sagan Thumbnail In science it often happens that scientists say, 'You know that's a really good argument; my position is mistaken,' and then they would actually change their minds and you never hear that old view from them again. They really do it. It doesn't happen as often as it should, because scientists are human and change is sometimes painful. But it happens every day. I cannot recall the last time something like that happened in politics or religion. (1987) -- Carl Sagan
Quotations by:Albert EinsteinIsaac NewtonLord KelvinCharles DarwinSrinivasa RamanujanCarl SaganFlorence NightingaleThomas EdisonAristotleMarie CurieBenjamin FranklinWinston ChurchillGalileo GalileiSigmund FreudRobert BunsenLouis PasteurTheodore RooseveltAbraham LincolnRonald ReaganLeonardo DaVinciMichio KakuKarl PopperJohann GoetheRobert OppenheimerCharles Kettering  ... (more people)

Quotations about:Atomic  BombBiologyChemistryDeforestationEngineeringAnatomyAstronomyBacteriaBiochemistryBotanyConservationDinosaurEnvironmentFractalGeneticsGeologyHistory of ScienceInventionJupiterKnowledgeLoveMathematicsMeasurementMedicineNatural ResourceOrganic ChemistryPhysicsPhysicianQuantum TheoryResearchScience and ArtTeacherTechnologyUniverseVolcanoVirusWind PowerWomen ScientistsX-RaysYouthZoology  ... (more topics)
Sitewide search within all Today In Science History pages:
Visit our Science and Scientist Quotations index for more Science Quotes from archaeologists, biologists, chemists, geologists, inventors and inventions, mathematicians, physicists, pioneers in medicine, science events and technology.

Names index: | A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z |

Categories index: | 1 | 2 | A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z |

- 100 -
Sophie Germain
Gertrude Elion
Ernest Rutherford
James Chadwick
Marcel Proust
William Harvey
Johann Goethe
John Keynes
Carl Gauss
Paul Feyerabend
- 90 -
Antoine Lavoisier
Lise Meitner
Charles Babbage
Ibn Khaldun
Euclid
Ralph Emerson
Robert Bunsen
Frederick Banting
Andre Ampere
Winston Churchill
- 80 -
John Locke
Bronislaw Malinowski
Bible
Thomas Huxley
Alessandro Volta
Erwin Schrodinger
Wilhelm Roentgen
Louis Pasteur
Bertrand Russell
Jean Lamarck
- 70 -
Samuel Morse
John Wheeler
Nicolaus Copernicus
Robert Fulton
Pierre Laplace
Humphry Davy
Thomas Edison
Lord Kelvin
Theodore Roosevelt
Carolus Linnaeus
- 60 -
Francis Galton
Linus Pauling
Immanuel Kant
Martin Fischer
Robert Boyle
Karl Popper
Paul Dirac
Avicenna
James Watson
William Shakespeare
- 50 -
Stephen Hawking
Niels Bohr
Nikola Tesla
Rachel Carson
Max Planck
Henry Adams
Richard Dawkins
Werner Heisenberg
Alfred Wegener
John Dalton
- 40 -
Pierre Fermat
Edward Wilson
Johannes Kepler
Gustave Eiffel
Giordano Bruno
JJ Thomson
Thomas Kuhn
Leonardo DaVinci
Archimedes
David Hume
- 30 -
Andreas Vesalius
Rudolf Virchow
Richard Feynman
James Hutton
Alexander Fleming
Emile Durkheim
Benjamin Franklin
Robert Oppenheimer
Robert Hooke
Charles Kettering
- 20 -
Carl Sagan
James Maxwell
Marie Curie
Rene Descartes
Francis Crick
Hippocrates
Michael Faraday
Srinivasa Ramanujan
Francis Bacon
Galileo Galilei
- 10 -
Aristotle
John Watson
Rosalind Franklin
Michio Kaku
Isaac Asimov
Charles Darwin
Sigmund Freud
Albert Einstein
Florence Nightingale
Isaac Newton



who invites your feedback
Thank you for sharing.
Today in Science History
Sign up for Newsletter
with quiz, quotes and more.