Celebrating 18 Years on the Web
TODAY IN SCIENCE HISTORY ®
Find science on or your birthday

Today in Science History - Quickie Quiz
Who said: “As far as the laws of mathematics refer to reality, they are not certain; and as far as they are certain, they do not refer to reality.”
more quiz questions >>
Home > Category Index for Science Quotations > Category Index C > Category: Central

Central Quotes (33 quotes)

Biology occupies a position among the sciences both marginal and central. Marginal because, the living world, constituting only a tiny and very “special” part of the universe, it does not seem likely that the study of living beings will ever uncover general laws applicable outside the biosphere. But if the ultimate aim of the whole of science is indeed, as I believe, to clarify man's relationship to the universe, then biology must be accorded a central position, since of all the disciplines it is the one that endeavours to go most directly to the heart of the problems that must be resolved before that of “human nature” can even be framed in other than metaphysical terms.
In Jacques Monod and Austryn Wainhouse (trans.), Chance and Necessity: An Essay on the Natural Philosophy of Modern Biology (1971), xi.
Science quotes on:  |  Biology (168)  |  Biosphere (11)  |  Clarify (3)  |  Discipline (53)  |  Endeavour (25)  |  Human Nature (60)  |  Life (1124)  |  Marginal (3)  |  Metaphysics (34)  |  Problem (490)  |  Relationship (71)  |  Universe (683)

Despite the high long-term probability of extinction, every organism alive today, including every person reading this paper, is a link in an unbroken chain of parent-offspring relationships that extends back unbroken to the beginning of life on earth. Every living organism is a part of an enormously long success story—each of its direct ancestors has been sufficiently well adapted to its physical and biological environments to allow it to mature and reproduce successfully. Viewed thus, adaptation is not a trivial facet of natural history, but a biological attribute so central as to be inseparable from life itself.
In 'Integrative Biology: An Organismic Biologist’s Point of View', Integrative and Comparative Biology (2005), 45, 330.
Science quotes on:  |  Adapt (27)  |  Adaptation (49)  |  Alive (49)  |  Allow (44)  |  Ancestor (40)  |  Attribute (38)  |  Back (104)  |  Begin (106)  |  Biological (35)  |  Chain (50)  |  Despite (7)  |  Direct (82)  |  Enormously (4)  |  Environment (180)  |  Extend (41)  |  Extinction (66)  |  Facet (8)  |  High (152)  |  Include (40)  |  Inseparable (10)  |  Life (1124)  |  Life On Earth (9)  |  Link (41)  |  Live (269)  |  Long (172)  |  Long-Term (9)  |  Mature (10)  |  Natural History (49)  |  Organism (150)  |  Paper (82)  |  Part (220)  |  Person (153)  |  Physical (129)  |  Probability (106)  |  Read (144)  |  Relationship (71)  |  Reproduce (11)  |  Story (72)  |  Success (248)  |  Successfully (5)  |  Sufficiently (9)  |  Today (117)  |  Trivial (41)  |  Unbroken (10)  |  View (171)

Differences between individuals are the raw materials for evolutionary change and for the evolution of adaptations, yet of course most physiologists treat these differences as noise that is to be filtered out. From the standpoint of physiological ecology, the traditional emphasis of physiologists on central tendencies rather than on variance has some unhappy consequences. Variation is not just noise; it is also the stuff of evolution and a central attribute of living systems. The physiological differences between individuals in the same species or population, and also the patterns of variation in different groups, must not be ignored.
From 'Interspecific comparison as a tool for ecological physiologists', collected in M.E. Feder, A.F. Bennett, W.W. Burggren, and R.B. Huey, (eds.), New Directions in Ecological Physiology (1987), 32-33,
Science quotes on:  |  Adaptation (49)  |  Attribute (38)  |  Change (363)  |  Consequence (110)  |  Difference (246)  |  Different (178)  |  Ecology (69)  |  Emphasis (17)  |  Evolution (533)  |  Evolutionary (23)  |  Filter (8)  |  Group (72)  |  Ignore (30)  |  Individual (215)  |  Live (269)  |  Material (154)  |  Noise (31)  |  Of Course (20)  |  Pattern (79)  |  Physiological (17)  |  Physiologist (17)  |  Population (78)  |  Raw (13)  |  Same (155)  |  Species (220)  |  Standpoint (10)  |  Stuff (21)  |  System (191)  |  Tendency (54)  |  Traditional (15)  |  Treat (34)  |  Unhappy (8)  |  Variance (5)  |  Variation (61)

Environmentalism opposes reckless innovation and makes conservation the central order of business.
…...
Science quotes on:  |  Business (84)  |  Conservation (143)  |  Environmentalism (3)  |  Innovation (40)  |  Oppose (23)  |  Order (239)  |  Reckless (4)

Heart and Brain are the two lords of life. In the metaphors of ordinary speech and in the stricter language of science, we use these terms to indicate two central powers, from which all motives radiate, to which all influences converge.
From 'The Principles of Success in Literature', The Fortnightly (1865), 1, 66.
Science quotes on:  |  Brain (209)  |  Convergence (3)  |  Heart (139)  |  Indication (23)  |  Influence (137)  |  Language (217)  |  Life (1124)  |  Lord (16)  |  Metaphor (25)  |  Motive (33)  |  Ordinary (71)  |  Power (358)  |  Radiation (25)  |  Science (2043)  |  Speech (46)  |  Strictness (2)  |  Term (120)

I can say, if I like, that social insects behave like the working parts of an immense central nervous system: the termite colony is an enormous brain on millions of legs; the individual termite is a mobile neurone.
In Late Night Thoughts on Listening to Mahler's Ninth Symphony(1984), 224. Note: Spelling “neurone&rdwuo; [sic].
Science quotes on:  |  Behavior (60)  |  Brain (209)  |  Colony (7)  |  Enormous (41)  |  Immense (42)  |  Individual (215)  |  Insect (64)  |  Leg (18)  |  Million (111)  |  Mobility (7)  |  Nervous System (14)  |  Neuron (9)  |  Part (220)  |  Social (108)  |  Termite (7)  |  Work (626)

If texts are unified by a central logic of argument, then their pictorial illustrations are integral to the ensemble, not pretty little trifles included only for aesthetic or commercial value. Primates are visual animals, and (particularly in science) illustration has a language and set of conventions all its own.
…...
Science quotes on:  |  Aesthetic (34)  |  Animal (356)  |  Argument (81)  |  Commercial (26)  |  Convention (14)  |  Ensemble (4)  |  Illustration (28)  |  Include (40)  |  Integral (14)  |  Language (217)  |  Little (184)  |  Logic (247)  |  Particularly (21)  |  Pictorial (2)  |  Pretty (20)  |  Primate (8)  |  Science (2043)  |  Set (97)  |  Text (14)  |  Trifle (13)  |  Unified (9)  |  Value (240)  |  Visual (15)

In light of new knowledge ... an eventual world state is not just desirable in the name of brotherhood, it is necessary for survival ... Today we must abandon competition and secure cooperation. This must be the central fact in all our considerations of international affairs; otherwise we face certain disaster. Past thinking and methods did not prevent world wars. Future thinking must prevent wars.
…...
Science quotes on:  |  Abandon (48)  |  Affair (29)  |  Brotherhood (5)  |  Certain (125)  |  Competition (30)  |  Consideration (85)  |  Cooperation (30)  |  Desirable (11)  |  Disaster (40)  |  Eventual (9)  |  Face (108)  |  Fact (725)  |  Future (284)  |  International (23)  |  Knowledge (1293)  |  Light (345)  |  Method (230)  |  Name (165)  |  Necessary (147)  |  New (483)  |  Otherwise (24)  |  Past (150)  |  Prevent (40)  |  Secure (20)  |  State (136)  |  Survival (60)  |  Think (341)  |  Today (117)  |  War (161)  |  World (892)

It is not surprising, in view of the polydynamic constitution of the genuinely mathematical mind, that many of the major heros of the science, men like Desargues and Pascal, Descartes and Leibnitz, Newton, Gauss and Bolzano, Helmholtz and Clifford, Riemann and Salmon and Plücker and Poincaré, have attained to high distinction in other fields not only of science but of philosophy and letters too. And when we reflect that the very greatest mathematical achievements have been due, not alone to the peering, microscopic, histologic vision of men like Weierstrass, illuminating the hidden recesses, the minute and intimate structure of logical reality, but to the larger vision also of men like Klein who survey the kingdoms of geometry and analysis for the endless variety of things that flourish there, as the eye of Darwin ranged over the flora and fauna of the world, or as a commercial monarch contemplates its industry, or as a statesman beholds an empire; when we reflect not only that the Calculus of Probability is a creation of mathematics but that the master mathematician is constantly required to exercise judgment—judgment, that is, in matters not admitting of certainty—balancing probabilities not yet reduced nor even reducible perhaps to calculation; when we reflect that he is called upon to exercise a function analogous to that of the comparative anatomist like Cuvier, comparing theories and doctrines of every degree of similarity and dissimilarity of structure; when, finally, we reflect that he seldom deals with a single idea at a tune, but is for the most part engaged in wielding organized hosts of them, as a general wields at once the division of an army or as a great civil administrator directs from his central office diverse and scattered but related groups of interests and operations; then, I say, the current opinion that devotion to mathematics unfits the devotee for practical affairs should be known for false on a priori grounds. And one should be thus prepared to find that as a fact Gaspard Monge, creator of descriptive geometry, author of the classic Applications de l’analyse à la géométrie; Lazare Carnot, author of the celebrated works, Géométrie de position, and Réflections sur la Métaphysique du Calcul infinitesimal; Fourier, immortal creator of the Théorie analytique de la chaleur; Arago, rightful inheritor of Monge’s chair of geometry; Poncelet, creator of pure projective geometry; one should not be surprised, I say, to find that these and other mathematicians in a land sagacious enough to invoke their aid, rendered, alike in peace and in war, eminent public service.
In Lectures on Science, Philosophy and Art (1908), 32-33.
Science quotes on:  |  A Priori (22)  |  Achievement (150)  |  Administrator (10)  |  Admit (44)  |  Affair (29)  |  Aid (41)  |  Alike (22)  |  Alone (101)  |  Analogous (4)  |  Analysis (159)  |  Anatomist (17)  |  Application (166)  |  François Arago (14)  |  Army (25)  |  Attain (42)  |  Author (61)  |  Balance (54)  |  Behold (18)  |  Bernhard Bolzano (2)  |  Calculation (98)  |  Calculus (48)  |  Call (127)  |  Lazare-Nicolas-Marguerite Carnot (3)  |  Celebrated (2)  |  Certainty (129)  |  Chair (11)  |  Civil (6)  |  Classic (9)  |  William Kingdon Clifford (21)  |  Commercial (26)  |  Comparative (13)  |  Compare (37)  |  Constantly (27)  |  Constitution (31)  |  Contemplate (17)  |  Creation (239)  |  Creator (52)  |  Current (54)  |  Baron Georges Cuvier (30)  |  Charles Darwin (301)  |  Deal (49)  |  Degree (81)  |  René Descartes (81)  |  Descriptive Geometry (3)  |  Devotee (5)  |  Devotion (25)  |  Direct (82)  |  Dissimilar (6)  |  Distinction (44)  |  Diverse (16)  |  Division (33)  |  Doctrine (75)  |  Due (20)  |  Eminent (17)  |  Empire (14)  |  Endless (28)  |  Engage (25)  |  Exercise (64)  |  Eye (218)  |  Fact (725)  |  False (98)  |  Fauna (13)  |  Field (170)  |  Finally (26)  |  Find (405)  |  Flora (9)  |  Flourish (15)  |  Baron Jean-Baptiste-Joseph Fourier (17)  |  Function (128)  |  Carl Friedrich Gauss (73)  |  General (156)  |  Genuinely (4)  |  Geometry (215)  |  Great (524)  |  Ground (90)  |  Group (72)  |  Hero (35)  |  Hide (53)  |  High (152)  |  Histology (2)  |  Host (16)  |  Idea (577)  |  Illuminate (24)  |  Immortal (19)  |  Industry (108)  |  Infinitesimal (15)  |  Inheritor (2)  |  Interest (235)  |  Intimate (14)  |  Invoke (6)  |  Judgment (98)  |  Kingdom (37)  |  Felix Klein (15)  |  Know (547)  |  Land (115)  |  Large (130)  |  Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (49)  |  Letter (50)  |  Logical (54)  |  Major (32)  |  Master (93)  |  Mathematician (364)  |  Mathematics (1149)  |  Matter (340)  |  Microscopic (11)  |  Mind (743)  |  Minute (43)  |  Monarch (4)  |  Gaspard Monge (2)  |  Sir Isaac Newton (327)  |  Office (22)  |  Operation (118)  |  Opinion (176)  |  Organize (20)  |  Part (220)  |  Blaise Pascal (79)  |  Peace (84)  |  Peer (11)  |  Philosophy (257)  |  Henri Poincaré (93)  |  Jean-Victor Poncelet (2)  |  Position (75)  |  Practical (129)  |  Prepare (34)  |  Probability (106)  |  Projective Geometry (2)  |  Public Service (5)  |  Pure (98)  |  Range (57)  |  Reality (188)  |  Recess (7)  |  Reduce (53)  |  Reducible (2)  |  Reflect (31)  |  Relate (19)  |  Render (30)  |  Require (79)  |  Bernhard Riemann (6)  |  Rightful (3)  |  Sagacious (4)  |  Say (228)  |  Scatter (6)  |  Science (2043)  |  Seldom (28)  |  Similarity (20)  |  Single (119)  |  Statesman (18)  |  Structure (221)  |  Surprise (70)  |  Survey (20)  |  Theory (690)  |  Tune (14)  |  Unfit (11)  |  Variety (69)  |  View (171)  |  Vision (94)  |  War (161)  |  Karl Weierstrass (6)  |  Wield (10)  |  Work (626)  |  World (892)

It is the intact and functioning organism on which natural selection operates. Organisms are therefore the central element of concern to the biologist who aspires to a broad and integrated understanding of biology.
From 'Interspecific comparison as a tool for ecological physiologists', collected in M.E. Feder, A.F. Bennett, W.W. Burggren, and R.B. Huey, (eds.), New Directions in Ecological Physiology (1987), 15.
Science quotes on:  |  Aspire (7)  |  Biologist (41)  |  Biology (168)  |  Broad (27)  |  Concern (108)  |  Element (162)  |  Function (128)  |  Intact (4)  |  Integrate (5)  |  Natural Selection (90)  |  Operate (17)  |  Organism (150)  |  Understand (326)

Life is inseparable from water. For all terrestrial animals, including birds, the inescapable need for maintaining an adequate state of hydration in a hostile, desiccating environment is a central persistent constraint which exerts a sustained selective pressure on every aspect of the life cycle. It has been said, with some justification, that the struggle for existence is a struggle for free energy for doing physiological work. It can be said with equal justification for terrestrial organisms that the struggle for existence is a struggle to maintain an aqueous internal environment in which energy transformations for doing work can take place.
In 'The water economy of seed-eating birds that survive without drinking', Proceedings of the International Ornithological Congress (1972), 15, 237-238.
Science quotes on:  |  Adequate (25)  |  Animal (356)  |  Aqueous (3)  |  Aspect (57)  |  Bird (119)  |  Constraint (10)  |  Energy (214)  |  Environment (180)  |  Equal (77)  |  Exert (14)  |  Existence (296)  |  Free (90)  |  Hostile (8)  |  Include (40)  |  Inescapable (6)  |  Inseparable (10)  |  Internal (23)  |  Justification (39)  |  Life (1124)  |  Life Cycle (4)  |  Maintain (32)  |  Need (283)  |  Organism (150)  |  Persistent (9)  |  Physiological (17)  |  Place (174)  |  Pressure (34)  |  Say (228)  |  Selective (8)  |  State (136)  |  Struggle (77)  |  Sustain (23)  |  Terrestrial (24)  |  Transformation (54)  |  Water (292)  |  Work (626)

My mother, my dad and I left Cuba when I was two [January, 1959]. Castro had taken control by then, and life for many ordinary people had become very difficult. My dad had worked [as a personal bodyguard for the wife of Cuban president Batista], so he was a marked man. We moved to Miami, which is about as close to Cuba as you can get without being there. It’s a Cuba-centric society. I think a lot of Cubans moved to the US thinking everything would be perfect. Personally, I have to say that those early years were not particularly happy. A lot of people didn’t want us around, and I can remember seeing signs that said: “No children. No pets. No Cubans.” Things were not made easier by the fact that Dad had begun working for the US government. At the time he couldn’t really tell us what he was doing, because it was some sort of top-secret operation. He just said he wanted to fight against what was happening back at home. [Estefan’s father was one of the many Cuban exiles taking part in the ill-fated, anti-Castro Bay of Pigs invasion to overthrow dictator Fidel Castro.] One night, Dad disappered. I think he was so worried about telling my mother he was going that he just left her a note. There were rumours something was happening back home, but we didn’t really know where Dad had gone. It was a scary time for many Cubans. A lot of men were involved—lots of families were left without sons and fathers. By the time we found out what my dad had been doing, the attempted coup had taken place, on April 17, 1961. Intitially he’d been training in Central America, but after the coup attempt he was captured and spent the next wo years as a political prisoner in Cuba. That was probably the worst time for my mother and me. Not knowing what was going to happen to Dad. I was only a kid, but I had worked out where my dad was. My mother was trying to keep it a secret, so she used to tell me Dad was on a farm. Of course, I thought that she didn’t know what had really happened to him, so I used to keep up the pretence that Dad really was working on a farm. We used to do this whole pretending thing every day, trying to protect each other. Those two years had a terrible effect on my mother. She was very nervous, just going from church to church. Always carrying her rosary beads, praying her little heart out. She had her religion, and I had my music. Music was in our family. My mother was a singer, and on my father’s side there was a violinist and a pianist. My grandmother was a poet.
…...
Science quotes on:  |  America (87)  |  April (4)  |  Attempt (121)  |  Back (104)  |  Bad (99)  |  Bay Of Pigs (2)  |  Become (172)  |  Begin (106)  |  Capture (10)  |  Carry (59)  |  Fidel Castro (3)  |  Child (245)  |  Church (34)  |  Close (66)  |  Control (111)  |  Cuba (2)  |  Dad (4)  |  Dictator (4)  |  Difficult (116)  |  Early (61)  |  Easy (98)  |  Effect (165)  |  Everything (180)  |  Exile (4)  |  Fact (725)  |  Family (45)  |  Farm (19)  |  Father (57)  |  Fight (44)  |  Find (405)  |  Government (93)  |  Grandmother (4)  |  Happen (82)  |  Happy (46)  |  Heart (139)  |  Home (83)  |  Invasion (8)  |  Involve (47)  |  Keep (100)  |  Kid (15)  |  Know (547)  |  Leave (127)  |  Life (1124)  |  Little (184)  |  Lot (29)  |  Mark (42)  |  Mother (71)  |  Move (94)  |  Music (95)  |  Nervous (7)  |  Next (35)  |  Night (117)  |  Note (33)  |  Of Course (20)  |  Operation (118)  |  Ordinary (71)  |  Overthrow (4)  |  Part (220)  |  Particularly (21)  |  People (388)  |  Perfect (83)  |  Personal (66)  |  Personally (7)  |  Pet (8)  |  Pianist (2)  |  Place (174)  |  Poet (78)  |  Political (36)  |  Pray (16)  |  President (15)  |  Pretence (6)  |  Pretend (17)  |  Prisoner (7)  |  Probably (47)  |  Protect (33)  |  Really (78)  |  Religion (239)  |  Remember (81)  |  Rumour (2)  |  Say (228)  |  Scary (2)  |  Secret (130)  |  See (369)  |  Side (51)  |  Sign (56)  |  Society (227)  |  Son (23)  |  Sort (49)  |  Spend (43)  |  Tell (110)  |  Terrible (19)  |  Think (341)  |  Thought (536)  |  Time (594)  |  Training (64)  |  Try (141)  |  Want (175)  |  Whole (189)  |  Wife (23)  |  Work (626)  |  Worry (33)  |  Year (299)

My profession often gets bad press for a variety of sins, both actual and imagined: arrogance, venality, insensitivity to moral issues about the use of knowledge, pandering to sources of funding with insufficient worry about attendant degradation of values. As an advocate for science, I plead ‘mildly guilty now and then’ to all these charges. Scientists are human beings subject to all the foibles and temptations of ordinary life. Some of us are moral rocks; others are reeds. I like to think (though I have no proof) that we are better, on average, than members of many other callings on a variety of issues central to the practice of good science: willingness to alter received opinion in the face of uncomfortable data, dedication to discovering and publicizing our best and most honest account of nature’s factuality, judgment of colleagues on the might of their ideas rather than the power of their positions.
…...
Science quotes on:  |  Account (67)  |  Actual (47)  |  Advocate (13)  |  Alter (23)  |  Arrogance (13)  |  Attendant (3)  |  Average (41)  |  Bad (99)  |  Best (172)  |  Better (190)  |  Both (81)  |  Charge (34)  |  Colleague (23)  |  Data (120)  |  Dedication (11)  |  Degradation (12)  |  Discover (196)  |  Face (108)  |  Factuality (2)  |  Foible (2)  |  Fund (12)  |  Good (345)  |  Guilty (9)  |  Honest (34)  |  Human Beings (21)  |  Idea (577)  |  Imagine (74)  |  Insufficient (8)  |  Issue (42)  |  Judgment (98)  |  Knowledge (1293)  |  Life (1124)  |  Member (39)  |  Mildly (2)  |  Moral (123)  |  Nature (1211)  |  Often (106)  |  Opinion (176)  |  Ordinary (71)  |  Pander (3)  |  Plead (3)  |  Position (75)  |  Power (358)  |  Practice (92)  |  Press (21)  |  Profession (60)  |  Proof (243)  |  Receive (59)  |  Reed (8)  |  Rock (125)  |  Science (2043)  |  Scientist (519)  |  Sin (30)  |  Source (90)  |  Subject (235)  |  Temptation (11)  |  Think (341)  |  Uncomfortable (6)  |  Value (240)  |  Variety (69)  |  Willingness (9)  |  Worry (33)

No substantial part of the universe is so simple that it can be grasped and controlled without abstraction. Abstraction consists in replacing the part of the universe under consideration by a model of similar but simpler structure. Models, formal and intellectual on the one hand, or material on the other, are thus a central necessity of scientific procedure.
As coauthor with Norbert Wiener in 'The Role of Models in Science', Philosophy of Science (Oct 1945), 12, No. 4, 316.
Science quotes on:  |  Abstraction (38)  |  Consideration (85)  |  Consist (45)  |  Control (111)  |  Formal (29)  |  Grasp (59)  |  Intellectual (120)  |  Material (154)  |  Model (80)  |  Necessity (142)  |  Part (220)  |  Procedure (24)  |  Replace (30)  |  Scientific (232)  |  Similar (35)  |  Simple (172)  |  Structure (221)  |  Substantial (14)  |  Universe (683)

Now this establishment of correspondence between two aggregates and investigation of the propositions that are carried over by the correspondence may be called the central idea of modern mathematics.
In 'Philosophy of the Pure Sciences', Lectures and Essays (1901), Vol. 1, 402.
Science quotes on:  |  Aggregate (14)  |  Call (127)  |  Carry (59)  |  Correspondence (15)  |  Establishment (34)  |  Idea (577)  |  Investigation (175)  |  Modern Mathematics (36)  |  Proposition (80)

Our abiding belief is that just as the workmen in the tunnel of St. Gothard, working from either end, met at last to shake hands in the very central root of the mountain, so students of nature and students of Christianity will yet join hands in the unity of reason and faith, in the heart of their deepest mysteries.
…...
Science quotes on:  |  Abide (12)  |  Belief (503)  |  Christianity (11)  |  Deep (121)  |  End (195)  |  Faith (157)  |  Hand (141)  |  Heart (139)  |  Join (25)  |  Meet (31)  |  Mountain (145)  |  Mystery (151)  |  Nature (1211)  |  Reason (454)  |  Root (60)  |  Shake (29)  |  St (2)  |  Student (201)  |  Tunnel (8)  |  Unity (53)  |  Work (626)  |  Workman (13)

Religion closes off the central questions of existence by attempting to dissuade us from further enquiry by asserting that we cannot ever hope to comprehend. We are, religion asserts, simply too puny.
Essay collected in John Cornwell (ed.), 'The Limitless Power of Science', Nature's Imagination: The Frontiers of Scientific Vision (1995), 125.
Science quotes on:  |  Assert (21)  |  Attempt (121)  |  Close (66)  |  Comprehend (39)  |  Enquiry (76)  |  Existence (296)  |  Hope (174)  |  Puny (5)  |  Question (404)  |  Science And Religion (302)  |  Simply (52)

Science fiction is the most important literature in the history of the world, because it’s the history of ideas, the history of our civilization birthing itself; Science fiction is central to everything we’ve ever done, and people who make fun of science fiction writers don’t know what they’’re talking about
…...
Science quotes on:  |  Birth (93)  |  Civilization (174)  |  Everything (180)  |  Fun (34)  |  History (368)  |  Idea (577)  |  Important (202)  |  Know (547)  |  Literature (79)  |  People (388)  |  Science Fiction (31)  |  Talk (99)  |  Weve (13)  |  World (892)  |  Writer (45)

The belief that mathematics, because it is abstract, because it is static and cold and gray, is detached from life, is a mistaken belief. Mathematics, even in its purest and most abstract estate, is not detached from life. It is just the ideal handling of the problems of life, as sculpture may idealize a human figure or as poetry or painting may idealize a figure or a scene. Mathematics is precisely the ideal handling of the problems of life, and the central ideas of the science, the great concepts about which its stately doctrines have been built up, are precisely the chief ideas with which life must always deal and which, as it tumbles and rolls about them through time and space, give it its interests and problems, and its order and rationality. That such is the case a few indications will suffice to show. The mathematical concepts of constant and variable are represented familiarly in life by the notions of fixedness and change. The concept of equation or that of an equational system, imposing restriction upon variability, is matched in life by the concept of natural and spiritual law, giving order to what were else chaotic change and providing partial freedom in lieu of none at all. What is known in mathematics under the name of limit is everywhere present in life in the guise of some ideal, some excellence high-dwelling among the rocks, an “ever flying perfect” as Emerson calls it, unto which we may approximate nearer and nearer, but which we can never quite attain, save in aspiration. The supreme concept of functionality finds its correlate in life in the all-pervasive sense of interdependence and mutual determination among the elements of the world. What is known in mathematics as transformation—that is, lawful transfer of attention, serving to match in orderly fashion the things of one system with those of another—is conceived in life as a process of transmutation by which, in the flux of the world, the content of the present has come out of the past and in its turn, in ceasing to be, gives birth to its successor, as the boy is father to the man and as things, in general, become what they are not. The mathematical concept of invariance and that of infinitude, especially the imposing doctrines that explain their meanings and bear their names—What are they but mathematicizations of that which has ever been the chief of life’s hopes and dreams, of that which has ever been the object of its deepest passion and of its dominant enterprise, I mean the finding of the worth that abides, the finding of permanence in the midst of change, and the discovery of a presence, in what has seemed to be a finite world, of being that is infinite? It is needless further to multiply examples of a correlation that is so abounding and complete as indeed to suggest a doubt whether it be juster to view mathematics as the abstract idealization of life than to regard life as the concrete realization of mathematics.
In 'The Humanization of Teaching of Mathematics', Science, New Series, 35, 645-46.
Science quotes on:  |  Abide (12)  |  Abound (5)  |  Abstract (79)  |  Approximate (10)  |  Aspiration (27)  |  Attain (42)  |  Attention (115)  |  Become (172)  |  Belief (503)  |  Birth (93)  |  Boy (46)  |  Build (117)  |  Call (127)  |  Case (98)  |  Cease (37)  |  Change (363)  |  Chaotic (2)  |  Chief (37)  |  Cold (58)  |  Complete (84)  |  Conceive (36)  |  Concept (143)  |  Concrete (31)  |  Constant (56)  |  Content (66)  |  Correlate (6)  |  Correlation (11)  |  Deal (49)  |  Deep (121)  |  Detach (5)  |  Determination (57)  |  Discovery (676)  |  Doctrine (75)  |  Dominant (14)  |  Doubt (159)  |  Dream (165)  |  Element (162)  |  Ralph Waldo Emerson (149)  |  Enterprise (32)  |  Equation (93)  |  Especially (30)  |  Estate (5)  |  Everywhere (24)  |  Example (92)  |  Excellence (33)  |  Explain (105)  |  Far (154)  |  Fashion (30)  |  Father (57)  |  Figure (68)  |  Find (405)  |  Finite (31)  |  Fixed (15)  |  Flux (13)  |  Fly (99)  |  Freedom (101)  |  Functionality (2)  |  General (156)  |  Give (200)  |  Gray (8)  |  Great (524)  |  Guise (5)  |  Handle (16)  |  Hope (174)  |  Human (548)  |  Idea (577)  |  Ideal (69)  |  Idealization (3)  |  Impose (22)  |  Indication (23)  |  Infinite (128)  |  Infinitude (3)  |  Interdependence (4)  |  Interest (235)  |  Invariance (4)  |  Know (547)  |  Law (513)  |  Lawful (7)  |  Life (1124)  |  Limit (123)  |  Match (16)  |  Mathematics (1149)  |  Mean (101)  |  Meanings (5)  |  Midst (7)  |  Mistake (131)  |  Multiply (18)  |  Mutual (27)  |  Name (165)  |  Natural (167)  |  Nature Of Mathematics (77)  |  Needless (4)  |  Notion (57)  |  Object (169)  |  Order (239)  |  Orderly (13)  |  Painting (42)  |  Partial (10)  |  Passion (70)  |  Past (150)  |  Perfect (83)  |  Permanence (17)  |  Pervasive (5)  |  Poetry (120)  |  Precisely (23)  |  Presence (33)  |  Present (174)  |  Problem (490)  |  Process (261)  |  Provide (68)  |  Pure (98)  |  Rationality (15)  |  Realization (37)  |  Regard (93)  |  Represent (41)  |  Restriction (9)  |  Rock (125)  |  Roll (17)  |  Save (56)  |  Scene (14)  |  Science (2043)  |  Sculpture (12)  |  Seem (143)  |  Sense (315)  |  Serve (57)  |  Show (90)  |  Spiritual (55)  |  Stately (9)  |  Static (8)  |  Successor (9)  |  Suffice (7)  |  Suggest (32)  |  Supreme (37)  |  System (191)  |  Time And Space (31)  |  Transfer (12)  |  Transformation (54)  |  Transmutation (17)  |  Tumble (2)  |  Turn (118)  |  Unto (8)  |  Variability (5)  |  Variable (16)  |  View (171)  |  World (892)  |  Worth (97)

The central task of education is to implant a will and facility for learning; it should produce not learned but learning people. The truly human society is a learning society, where grandparents, parents, and children are students together.
In Reflections on the Human Condition (1973), 22.
Science quotes on:  |  Child (245)  |  Education (333)  |  Facility (11)  |  Human (548)  |  Implant (3)  |  Learning (177)  |  Parent (45)  |  Produce (100)  |  Society (227)  |  Student (201)  |  Task (83)

The distributed architecture and its technique of packet switching were built around the problem of getting messages delivered despite blockages, holes and malfunctions. Imagine the poor censor faced with such a system. There is no central exchange to seize and hold; messages actively “seek out” alternative routes so that even if one path is blocked another may open up. Here is the civil libertarian’s dream.
As quoted in Richard Rogers, 'The Internet Treats Censorship as a Malfunction and Routes Around It? : A New Media Approach to the Study of State Internet Censorship', collected in Jussi Parikka and Tony D. Sampson (eds.), The Spam Book: On Viruses, Porn, and Other Anomalies from the Dark Side of Digital Culture (2009), 243.
Science quotes on:  |  Actively (3)  |  Alternative (29)  |  Architecture (43)  |  Block (12)  |  Censor (2)  |  Civil (6)  |  Delivery (6)  |  Distribute (9)  |  Dream (165)  |  Exchange (12)  |  Hold (92)  |  Malfunction (3)  |  Message (35)  |  Open (66)  |  Path (84)  |  Problem (490)  |  Route (15)  |  Seek (104)  |  Seize (14)  |  Technique (49)

The great mathematician, like the great poet or naturalist or great administrator, is born. My contention shall be that where the mathematic endowment is found, there will usually be found associated with it, as essential implications in it, other endowments in generous measure, and that the appeal of the science is to the whole mind, direct no doubt to the central powers of thought, but indirectly through sympathy of all, rousing, enlarging, developing, emancipating all, so that the faculties of will, of intellect and feeling learn to respond, each in its appropriate order and degree, like the parts of an orchestra to the “urge and ardor” of its leader and lord.
In Lectures on Science, Philosophy and Art (1908), 22.
Science quotes on:  |  Administrator (10)  |  Appeal (45)  |  Appropriate (26)  |  Ardor (5)  |  Associate (14)  |  Bear (66)  |  Contention (10)  |  Degree (81)  |  Develop (103)  |  Direct (82)  |  Doubt (159)  |  Emancipate (2)  |  Endowment (10)  |  Enlarge (26)  |  Essential (115)  |  Faculty (65)  |  Feel (165)  |  Find (405)  |  Generous (13)  |  Great (524)  |  Implication (22)  |  Indirectly (6)  |  Intellect (188)  |  Leader (28)  |  Learn (281)  |  Lord (16)  |  Mathematic (3)  |  Mathematician (364)  |  Measure (102)  |  Mind (743)  |  Naturalist (54)  |  Orchestra (2)  |  Order (239)  |  Part (220)  |  Poet (78)  |  Power (358)  |  Respond (11)  |  Rouse (3)  |  Science (2043)  |  Sympathy (23)  |  Thought (536)  |  Urge (16)  |  Usually (31)  |  Whole (189)

The individual feels the futility of human desires and aims and the sublimity and marvelous order which reveal themselves both in nature and in the world of thought. Individual existence impresses him as a sort of prison and he wants to experience the universe as a single significant whole. The beginnings of cosmic religious feeling already appear at an early stage of development, e.g., in many of the Psalms of David and in some of the Prophets. Buddhism, as we have learned especially from the wonderful writings of Schopenhauer, contains a much stronger element of this. The religious geniuses of all ages have been distinguished by this kind of religious feeling, which knows no dogma and no God conceived in man’s image; so that there can be no church whose central teachings are based on it. Hence it is precisely among the heretics of every age that we find men who were filled with this highest kind of religious feeling and were in many cases regarded by their contemporaries as atheists, sometimes also as saints. Looked at in this light, men like Democritus, Francis of Assisi, and Spinoza are closely akin to one another.
…...
Science quotes on:  |  Age (174)  |  Aim (88)  |  Akin (5)  |  Already (28)  |  Appear (115)  |  Atheist (15)  |  Base (71)  |  Beginnings (4)  |  Both (81)  |  Case (98)  |  Church (34)  |  Closely (12)  |  Conceive (36)  |  Contain (67)  |  Contemporary (30)  |  Cosmic (47)  |  David (6)  |  Democritus of Abdera (17)  |  Desire (140)  |  Development (276)  |  Distinguish (61)  |  Dogma (32)  |  Early (61)  |  Element (162)  |  Especially (30)  |  Existence (296)  |  Experience (338)  |  Feel (165)  |  Fill (61)  |  Find (405)  |  Francis (2)  |  Futility (6)  |  Genius (243)  |  God (535)  |  Heretic (5)  |  High (152)  |  Human (548)  |  Image (55)  |  Impress (16)  |  Individual (215)  |  Kind (138)  |  Know (547)  |  Learn (281)  |  Light (345)  |  Marvelous (17)  |  Nature (1211)  |  Order (239)  |  Precisely (23)  |  Prison (9)  |  Prophet (11)  |  Psalm (3)  |  Regard (93)  |  Religious (49)  |  Reveal (50)  |  Saint (11)  |  Significant (35)  |  Single (119)  |  Sometimes (43)  |  Sort (49)  |  Spinoza (4)  |  Stage (54)  |  Strong (72)  |  Sublimity (4)  |  Teachings (3)  |  Themselves (44)  |  Thought (536)  |  Universe (683)  |  Want (175)  |  Whole (189)  |  Wonderful (59)  |  World (892)  |  Writings (5)

The role of inhibition in the working of the central nervous system has proved to be more and more extensive and more and more fundamental as experiment has advanced in examining it. Reflex inhibition can no longer be regarded merely as a factor specially developed for dealing with the antagonism of opponent muscles acting at various hinge-joints. Its role as a coordinative factor comprises that, and goes beyond that. In the working of the central nervous machinery inhibition seems as ubiquitous and as frequent as is excitation itself. The whole quantitative grading of the operations of the spinal cord and brain appears to rest upon mutual interaction between the two central processes 'excitation' and 'inhibition', the one no less important than the other. For example, no operation can be more important as a basis of coordination for a motor act than adjustment of the quantity of contraction, e.g. of the number of motor units employed and the intensity of their individual tetanic activity. This now appears as the outcome of nice co-adjustment of excitation and inhibition upon each of all the individual units which cooperate in the act.
Inhibition as a Coordinative Factor', Nobel Lecture (12 Dec 1932). Nobel Lectures: Physiology or Medicine 1922-1941 (1965), 288.
Science quotes on:  |  Antagonism (4)  |  Brain (209)  |  Contraction (8)  |  Excitation (7)  |  Hinge (3)  |  Inhibition (10)  |  Joint (12)  |  Motor (11)  |  Nervous System (14)  |  Spinal Cord (3)

The ruthless destruction of their forests by the Chinese is one of the reasons why famine and plague today hold this nation in their sinister grasp. Denudation, wherever practiced, leaves naked soil; floods and erosion follow, and when the soil is gone men must also go—and the process does not take long. The great plains of Eastern China were centuries ago transformed from forest into agricultural land. The mountain plateau of Central China have also within a few hundred years been utterly devastated of tree growth, and no attempt made at either natural or artificial reforestation. As a result, the water rushes off the naked slopes in veritable floods, gullying away the mountain sides, causing rivers to run muddy with yellow soil, and carrying enormous masses of fertile earth to the sea. Water courses have also changed; rivers become uncontrollable, and the water level of the country is lowered perceptibly. In consequence, the unfortunate people see their crops wither and die for lack of water when it is most needed.
Statement (11 May 1921) by United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) concerning the famine in China in seven out of every ten years. Reported in 'Blames Deforestation: Department of Agriculture Ascribes Chinese Famine to it', New York Times (12 May 1921), 12.
Science quotes on:  |  Agriculture (66)  |  Artificial (32)  |  Attempt (121)  |  Century (130)  |  Changed (2)  |  China (20)  |  Chinese (7)  |  Consequence (110)  |  Country (144)  |  Course (83)  |  Crop (19)  |  Deforestation (43)  |  Denudation (2)  |  Destruction (85)  |  Die (81)  |  Earth (635)  |  Erosion (19)  |  Famine (10)  |  Fertile (16)  |  Flood (36)  |  Follow (123)  |  Forest (107)  |  Grasp (59)  |  Growth (122)  |  Lack (77)  |  Land (115)  |  Level (67)  |  Lowered (2)  |  Mountain (145)  |  Muddy (3)  |  Naked (9)  |  Nation (132)  |  Natural (167)  |  Need (283)  |  People (388)  |  Perceptibly (2)  |  Plague (35)  |  Plain (33)  |  Plateau (6)  |  Reason (454)  |  Reforestation (3)  |  Result (376)  |  River (79)  |  Ruthless (6)  |  Sea (187)  |  Sinister (8)  |  Slope (3)  |  Soil (64)  |  Transform (35)  |  Tree (170)  |  Uncontrollable (4)  |  Unfortunate (14)  |  Utterly (15)  |  Water (292)  |  Wither (8)  |  Yellow (17)

There are three creative ideas which, each in its turn, have been central to science. They are the idea of order, the idea of causes, and the idea of chance.
From The Common Sense of Science (1951), 145.
Science quotes on:  |  Cause (283)  |  Chance (159)  |  Creative (58)  |  Idea (577)  |  Order (239)  |  Science (2043)  |  Three (10)  |  Turn (118)

There is no one central problem in philosophy, but countless little problems. Philosophy is like trying to open a safe with a combination lock: each little adjustment of the dials seems to achieve nothing, only when everything is in place does the door open.
From conversation with Rush Rhees (1930) as given by Rush Rhees in Ludwig Wittgenstein: Personal Recollections (1981), 96.
Science quotes on:  |  Achieving (3)  |  Adjustment (15)  |  Combination Lock (2)  |  Countless (21)  |  Dial (4)  |  Door (38)  |  Everything (180)  |  Little (184)  |  Nothing (385)  |  Opening (15)  |  Philosophy (257)  |  Place (174)  |  Problem (490)  |  Safe (27)  |  Trying (19)

There rolls the deep where grew the tree.
O earth, what changes hast thou seen!
There where the long street roars, hath been
The stillness of the central sea.
The hills are shadows, and they flow
From form to form, and nothing stands;
They melt like mist, the solid lands,
Like clouds they shape themselves and go.
In Memoriam A. H. H. (1850), canto 123. Collected in Alfred Tennyson and William James Rolfe (ed.) The Poetic and Dramatic works of Alfred, Lord Tennyson (1898), 194.
Science quotes on:  |  Change (363)  |  Cloud (69)  |  Deep (121)  |  Earth (635)  |  Flow (42)  |  Form (308)  |  Hill (20)  |  Land (115)  |  Melting (6)  |  Mist (9)  |  Nothing (385)  |  Roar (5)  |  Roll (17)  |  Sea (187)  |  Seeing (47)  |  Shadow (52)  |  Shape (69)  |  Solid (50)  |  Stand (107)  |  Stillness (5)  |  Street (23)  |  Tree (170)

To ask what qualities distinguish good from routine scientific research is to address a question that should be of central concern to every scientist. We can make the question more tractable by rephrasing it, “What attributes are shared by the scientific works which have contributed importantly to our understanding of the physical world—in this case the world of living things?” Two of the most widely accepted characteristics of good scientific work are generality of application and originality of conception. . These qualities are easy to point out in the works of others and, of course extremely difficult to achieve in one’s own research. At first hearing novelty and generality appear to be mutually exclusive, but they really are not. They just have different frames of reference. Novelty has a human frame of reference; generality has a biological frame of reference. Consider, for example, Darwinian Natural Selection. It offers a mechanism so widely applicable as to be almost coexistent with reproduction, so universal as to be almost axiomatic, and so innovative that it shook, and continues to shake, man’s perception of causality.
In 'Scientific innovation and creativity: a zoologist’s point of view', American Zoologist (1982), 22, 230.
Science quotes on:  |  Accept (65)  |  Achieve (63)  |  Address (12)  |  Appear (115)  |  Applicable (11)  |  Application (166)  |  Ask (157)  |  Attribute (38)  |  Axiomatic (2)  |  Biological (35)  |  Case (98)  |  Causality (10)  |  Characteristic (94)  |  Conception (88)  |  Concern (108)  |  Consider (80)  |  Continue (63)  |  Contribute (26)  |  Darwinian (9)  |  Different (178)  |  Difficult (116)  |  Distinguish (61)  |  Easy (98)  |  Example (92)  |  Exclusive (16)  |  Extremely (15)  |  First (313)  |  Frame (26)  |  Frame of Reference (4)  |  Generality (34)  |  Good (345)  |  Hear (60)  |  Human (548)  |  Importantly (3)  |  Innovative (2)  |  Living Things (5)  |  Mechanism (52)  |  Mutually (7)  |  Natural Selection (90)  |  Novelty (23)  |  Of Course (20)  |  Offer (43)  |  Originality (18)  |  Perception (61)  |  Physical World (12)  |  Point Out (8)  |  Quality (93)  |  Question (404)  |  Really (78)  |  Reference (33)  |  Rephrase (2)  |  Reproduction (61)  |  Research (589)  |  Routine (19)  |  Scientific (232)  |  Scientist (519)  |  Shake (29)  |  Share (49)  |  Understand (326)  |  Universal (100)  |  Widely (8)  |  Work (626)  |  World (892)

Tungsten, X-rays, and Coolidge form a trinity that has left an indelible impression upon our life and times. The key word in this triad is Coolidge, for his work brought the element tungsten from laboratory obscurity to the central role of the industrial stage and gave the X-ray a central role in the progress of medicine throughout the world.
In National Academy of Sciences, Biographical Memoirs, Vol. 53, 141.
Science quotes on:  |  Element (162)  |  Impression (69)  |  Industry (108)  |  Laboratory (131)  |  Medicine (343)  |  Obscurity (25)  |  Progress (362)  |  Role (49)  |  Stage (54)  |  Trinity (7)  |  Tungsten (2)  |  X-ray (18)

Underneath his sweetness and gentleness was the heat of a volcano. [Michael Faraday] was a man of excitable and fiery nature; but through high self-discipline he had converted the fire into a central glow and motive power of life, instead of permitting it to waste itself in useless passion.
In Faraday as a Discoverer (1868), 37.
Science quotes on:  |  Biography (232)  |  Conversion (14)  |  Excitement (40)  |  Fire (132)  |  Glow (14)  |  Life (1124)  |  Motive (33)  |  Nature (1211)  |  Passion (70)  |  Permit (30)  |  Power (358)  |  Self-Discipline (2)  |  Sweetness (8)  |  Uselessness (22)  |  Volcano (39)  |  Waste (64)

We thus begin to see that the institutionalized practice of citations and references in the sphere of learning is not a trivial matter. While many a general reader–that is, the lay reader located outside the domain of science and scholarship–may regard the lowly footnote or the remote endnote or the bibliographic parenthesis as a dispensable nuisance, it can be argued that these are in truth central to the incentive system and an underlying sense of distributive justice that do much to energize the advancement of knowledge.
In ''he Matthew Effect in Science, II: Cumulative Advantage and the Symbolism of Intellectual Property', Isis (1988), 79, 621.
Science quotes on:  |  Advancement (40)  |  Argument (81)  |  Bibliography (3)  |  Citation (4)  |  Dispense (8)  |  Distributive (2)  |  Domain (40)  |  Energize (2)  |  Footnote (5)  |  Incentive (8)  |  Institution (39)  |  Justice (27)  |  Knowledge (1293)  |  Learning (177)  |  Nuisance (4)  |  Parenthesis (2)  |  Practice (92)  |  Reader (38)  |  Reference (33)  |  Scholarship (14)  |  Science (2043)  |  Sense (315)  |  System (191)  |  Trivial (41)  |  Truth (914)  |  Underlying (18)

What intellectual phenomenon can be older, or more oft repeated, than the story of a large research program that impaled itself upon a false central assumption accepted by all practitioners? Do we regard all people who worked within such traditions as dishonorable fools? What of the scientists who assumed that the continents were stable, that the hereditary material was protein, or that all other galaxies lay within the Milky Way? These false and abandoned efforts were pursued with passion by brilliant and honorable scientists. How many current efforts, now commanding millions of research dollars and the full attention of many of our best scientists, will later be exposed as full failures based on false premises?
…...
Science quotes on:  |  Abandon (48)  |  Accept (65)  |  Assume (37)  |  Assumption (58)  |  Attention (115)  |  Base (71)  |  Best (172)  |  Brilliant (28)  |  Command (27)  |  Continent (52)  |  Current (54)  |  Dishonorable (2)  |  Dollar (22)  |  Effort (143)  |  Expose (16)  |  Failure (138)  |  False (98)  |  Fool (85)  |  Full (63)  |  Galaxy (46)  |  Hereditary (7)  |  Honorable (5)  |  Intellectual (120)  |  Large (130)  |  Late (52)  |  Lie (115)  |  Material (154)  |  Milky Way (24)  |  Millions (17)  |  Old (147)  |  Passion (70)  |  People (388)  |  Phenomenon (276)  |  Practitioner (13)  |  Premise (25)  |  Program (51)  |  Protein (44)  |  Pursue (21)  |  Regard (93)  |  Repeat (40)  |  Research (589)  |  Scientist (519)  |  Stable (17)  |  Story (72)  |  Tradition (49)  |  Work (626)


Carl Sagan Thumbnail In science it often happens that scientists say, 'You know that's a really good argument; my position is mistaken,' and then they would actually change their minds and you never hear that old view from them again. They really do it. It doesn't happen as often as it should, because scientists are human and change is sometimes painful. But it happens every day. I cannot recall the last time something like that happened in politics or religion. (1987) -- Carl Sagan
Quotations by:Albert EinsteinIsaac NewtonLord KelvinCharles DarwinSrinivasa RamanujanCarl SaganFlorence NightingaleThomas EdisonAristotleMarie CurieBenjamin FranklinWinston ChurchillGalileo GalileiSigmund FreudRobert BunsenLouis PasteurTheodore RooseveltAbraham LincolnRonald ReaganLeonardo DaVinciMichio KakuKarl PopperJohann GoetheRobert OppenheimerCharles Kettering  ... (more people)

Quotations about:Atomic  BombBiologyChemistryDeforestationEngineeringAnatomyAstronomyBacteriaBiochemistryBotanyConservationDinosaurEnvironmentFractalGeneticsGeologyHistory of ScienceInventionJupiterKnowledgeLoveMathematicsMeasurementMedicineNatural ResourceOrganic ChemistryPhysicsPhysicianQuantum TheoryResearchScience and ArtTeacherTechnologyUniverseVolcanoVirusWind PowerWomen ScientistsX-RaysYouthZoology  ... (more topics)
Sitewide search within all Today In Science History pages:
Visit our Science and Scientist Quotations index for more Science Quotes from archaeologists, biologists, chemists, geologists, inventors and inventions, mathematicians, physicists, pioneers in medicine, science events and technology.

Names index: | A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z |

Categories index: | 1 | 2 | A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z |

- 100 -
Sophie Germain
Gertrude Elion
Ernest Rutherford
James Chadwick
Marcel Proust
William Harvey
Johann Goethe
John Keynes
Carl Gauss
Paul Feyerabend
- 90 -
Antoine Lavoisier
Lise Meitner
Charles Babbage
Ibn Khaldun
Euclid
Ralph Emerson
Robert Bunsen
Frederick Banting
Andre Ampere
Winston Churchill
- 80 -
John Locke
Bronislaw Malinowski
Bible
Thomas Huxley
Alessandro Volta
Erwin Schrodinger
Wilhelm Roentgen
Louis Pasteur
Bertrand Russell
Jean Lamarck
- 70 -
Samuel Morse
John Wheeler
Nicolaus Copernicus
Robert Fulton
Pierre Laplace
Humphry Davy
Thomas Edison
Lord Kelvin
Theodore Roosevelt
Carolus Linnaeus
- 60 -
Francis Galton
Linus Pauling
Immanuel Kant
Martin Fischer
Robert Boyle
Karl Popper
Paul Dirac
Avicenna
James Watson
William Shakespeare
- 50 -
Stephen Hawking
Niels Bohr
Nikola Tesla
Rachel Carson
Max Planck
Henry Adams
Richard Dawkins
Werner Heisenberg
Alfred Wegener
John Dalton
- 40 -
Pierre Fermat
Edward Wilson
Johannes Kepler
Gustave Eiffel
Giordano Bruno
JJ Thomson
Thomas Kuhn
Leonardo DaVinci
Archimedes
David Hume
- 30 -
Andreas Vesalius
Rudolf Virchow
Richard Feynman
James Hutton
Alexander Fleming
Emile Durkheim
Benjamin Franklin
Robert Oppenheimer
Robert Hooke
Charles Kettering
- 20 -
Carl Sagan
James Maxwell
Marie Curie
Rene Descartes
Francis Crick
Hippocrates
Michael Faraday
Srinivasa Ramanujan
Francis Bacon
Galileo Galilei
- 10 -
Aristotle
John Watson
Rosalind Franklin
Michio Kaku
Isaac Asimov
Charles Darwin
Sigmund Freud
Albert Einstein
Florence Nightingale
Isaac Newton



who invites your feedback
Thank you for sharing.
Today in Science History
Sign up for Newsletter
with quiz, quotes and more.