Celebrating 19 Years on the Web
TODAY IN SCIENCE HISTORY ®
Find science on or your birthday

Today in Science History - Quickie Quiz
Who said: “Every body perseveres in its state of being at rest or of moving uniformly straight forward, except insofar as it is compelled to change its state by forces impressed.”
more quiz questions >>
Home > Category Index for Science Quotations > Category Index R > Category: Radiation

Radiation Quotes (44 quotes)

...Outer space, once a region of spirited international competition, is also a region of international cooperation. I realized this as early as 1959, when I attended an international conference on cosmic radiation in Moscow. At this conference, there were many differing views and differing methods of attack, but the problems were common ones to all of us and a unity of basic purpose was everywhere evident. Many of the papers presented there depended in an essential way upon others which had appeared originally in as many as three or four different languages. Surely science is one of the universal human activities.
Science quotes on:  |  All (4108)  |  Attack (84)  |  Attend (65)  |  Basic (138)  |  Common (436)  |  Competition (39)  |  Conference (17)  |  Cooperation (32)  |  Cosmic (72)  |  Depend (228)  |  Different (577)  |  Early (185)  |  Essential (199)  |  Everywhere (94)  |  Evident (91)  |  Human (1468)  |  International (37)  |  Language (293)  |  Method (505)  |  Methods (204)  |  Other (2236)  |  Paper (182)  |  Present (619)  |  Problem (676)  |  Purpose (317)  |  Science (3879)  |  Space (500)  |  Spirit (265)  |  Surely (101)  |  Unity (78)  |  Universal (189)  |  View (488)  |  Way (1217)

A possible explanation for the observed excess noise is the one given by Dicke, Peebles, Roll, and Wilkinson (1965) in a companion letter in this issue.
[The low-key announcement of the detection of the cosmic microwave background radiation which is the afterglow of the Big Bang. Co-author with Robert Wilson. They received the 1978 Nobel Prize for their discovery.]
'A measurement of excess antenna temperature at 4080 Mc/s'. In Astrophysical Journal (1965). Reprinted in R. B. Partridge, 3 K the cosmic microwave background radiation? (1995), Appendix A, 355.
Science quotes on:  |  Announcement (15)  |  Author (167)  |  Background (43)  |  Background Radiation (3)  |  Bang (29)  |  Big Bang (39)  |  Co-Author (2)  |  Companion (19)  |  Cosmic (72)  |  Detection (16)  |  Discovery (780)  |  Excess (22)  |  Explanation (234)  |  Give (202)  |  Issue (42)  |  Letter (109)  |  Low (80)  |  Microwave (4)  |  Nobel Prize (40)  |  Noise (37)  |  Observe (168)  |  Observed (149)  |  Possible (552)  |  Receive (114)  |  Roll (40)

An example of such emergent phenomena is the origin of life from non-living chemical compounds in the oldest, lifeless oceans of the earth. Here, aided by the radiation energy received from the sun, countless chemical materials were synthesized and accumulated in such a way that they constituted, as it were, a primeval “soup.” In this primeval soup, by infinite variations of lifeless growth and decay of substances during some billions of years, the way of life was ultimately reached, with its metabolism characterized by selective assimilation and dissimilation as end stations of a sluiced and canalized flow of free chemical energy.
In 'The Scientific Character of Geology', The Journal of Geology (Jul 1961), 69, No. 4, 458.
Science quotes on:  |  Accumulate (26)  |  Aid (97)  |  Assimilation (13)  |  Billion (95)  |  Canal (17)  |  Characterize (20)  |  Chemical (292)  |  Chemical Energy (3)  |  Compound (113)  |  Constitute (97)  |  Countless (36)  |  Decay (53)  |  Earth (996)  |  Emergent (3)  |  End (590)  |  Energy (344)  |  Flow (83)  |  Free (232)  |  Growth (187)  |  Infinite (231)  |  Life (1795)  |  Lifeless (14)  |  Living (491)  |  Material (353)  |  Metabolism (14)  |  Non-Living (3)  |  Ocean (202)  |  Origin (239)  |  Origin Of Life (36)  |  Phenomenon (318)  |  Primeval (15)  |  Reach (281)  |  Selective (19)  |  Sluice (2)  |  Soup (9)  |  Station (29)  |  Substance (248)  |  Sun (385)  |  Synthesis (57)  |  Ultimately (55)  |  Variation (90)  |  Way (1217)  |  Way Of Life (12)  |  Year (933)

At the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, we have long had a tradition of close cooperation between physicists and technicians.
From Nobel Lecture (11 Dec 1968). Collected in Yong Zhou (ed.), Nobel Lecture: Physics, 1963-1970 (2013), 250.
Science quotes on:  |  Close (69)  |  Cooperation (32)  |  Laboratory (196)  |  Long (790)  |  Physicist (259)  |  Technician (9)  |  Tradition (69)

But in its [the corpuscular theory of radiation] relation to the wave theory there is one extraordinary and, at present, insoluble problem. It is not known how the energy of the electron in the X-ray bulb is transferred by a wave motion to an electron in the photographic plate or in any other substance on which the X-rays fall. It is as if one dropped a plank into the sea from the height of 100 ft. and found that the spreading ripple was able, after travelling 1000 miles and becoming infinitesimal in comparison with its original amount, to act upon a wooden ship in such a way that a plank of that ship flew out of its place to a height of 100 ft. How does the energy get from one place to the other?
'Aether Waves and Electrons' (Summary of the Robert Boyle Lecture), Nature, 1921, 107, 374.
Science quotes on:  |  Act (272)  |  Amount (151)  |  Becoming (96)  |  Bulb (10)  |  Comparison (102)  |  Dropped (17)  |  Electron (93)  |  Energy (344)  |  Extraordinary (79)  |  Fall (230)  |  Infinitesimal (29)  |  Known (454)  |  Motion (310)  |  Other (2236)  |  Present (619)  |  Problem (676)  |  Ray (114)  |  Ripple (9)  |  Sea (308)  |  Ship (62)  |  Substance (248)  |  Theory (970)  |  Travelling (17)  |  Wave (107)  |  Way (1217)  |  X-ray (37)

Cosmology is a science which has only a few observable facts to work with. The discovery of the cosmic microwave background radiation added one—the present radiation temperature of the universe. This, however, was a significant increase in our knowledge since it requires a cosmology with a source for the radiation at an early epoch and is a new probe of that epoch. More sensitive measurements of the background radiation in the future will allow us to discover additional facts about the universe.
'Discovery of the Cosmic Microwave Background', in B. Bertotti (ed.) Modern Cosmology in Retrospect (1990), 304.
Science quotes on:  |  Background (43)  |  Background Radiation (3)  |  Cosmic (72)  |  Cosmology (25)  |  Discover (553)  |  Discovery (780)  |  Early (185)  |  Epoch (45)  |  Fact (1210)  |  Facts (553)  |  Future (429)  |  Increase (210)  |  Knowledge (1529)  |  Measurement (174)  |  Microwave (4)  |  More (2559)  |  New (1216)  |  Observable (21)  |  Observation (555)  |  Present (619)  |  Probe (12)  |  Require (219)  |  Science (3879)  |  Significant (74)  |  Temperature (79)  |  Universe (857)  |  Will (2355)  |  Work (1351)

Everybody is exposed to radiation. A little bit more or a little bit less is of no consequence..
Quoted in 'Dixy Lee Ray, 79, Ex-Governor; Led Atomic Energy Commission' obituary, New York Times (3 Jan 1994).
Science quotes on:  |  Consequence (203)  |  Everybody (70)  |  Exposed (33)  |  Little (707)  |  More (2559)

Firm support has been found for the assertion that electricity occurs at thousands of points where we at most conjectured that it was present. Innumerable electrical particles oscillate in every flame and light source. We can in fact assume that every heat source is filled with electrons which will continue to oscillate ceaselessly and indefinitely. All these electrons leave their impression on the emitted rays. We can hope that experimental study of the radiation phenomena, which are exposed to various influences, but in particular to the effect of magnetism, will provide us with useful data concerning a new field, that of atomistic astronomy, as Lodge called it, populated with atoms and electrons instead of planets and worlds.
'Light Radiation in a Magnetic Field', Nobel Lecture, 2 May 1903. In Nobel Lectures: Physics 1901-1921 (1967), 40.
Science quotes on:  |  All (4108)  |  Assertion (32)  |  Astronomy (229)  |  Atom (355)  |  Call (769)  |  Conjecture (49)  |  Continue (165)  |  Data (156)  |  Effect (393)  |  Electrical (57)  |  Electricity (159)  |  Electromagnetic Radiation (2)  |  Electron (93)  |  Experiment (695)  |  Experimental (192)  |  Exposed (33)  |  Fact (1210)  |  Field (364)  |  Firm (47)  |  Flame (40)  |  Heat (174)  |  Hope (299)  |  Impression (114)  |  Influence (222)  |  Innumerable (55)  |  Light (607)  |  Sir Oliver Joseph Lodge (13)  |  Magnetism (41)  |  Most (1731)  |  New (1216)  |  Occur (150)  |  Oscillate (2)  |  Particle (194)  |  Planet (356)  |  Point (580)  |  Present (619)  |  Ray (114)  |  Research (664)  |  Study (653)  |  Support (147)  |  Thousand (331)  |  Useful (250)  |  Various (200)  |  Will (2355)  |  World (1774)

Food is at present obtained almost entirely from the energy of the sunlight. The radiation from the sun produces from the carbonic acid in the air more or less complicated carbon compounds which serve us in plants and vegetables. We use the latent chemical energy of these to keep our bodies warm, we convert it into muscular effort. We employ it in the complicated process of digestion to repair and replace the wasted cells of our bodies. … If the gigantic sources of power become available, food would be produced without recourse to sunlight. Vast cellars, in which artificial radiation is generated, may replace the cornfields and potato patches of the world.
From 'Fifty Years Hence', Strand Magazine (Dec 1931). Reprinted in Popular Mechanics (Mar 1932), 57, No. 3, 396-397.
Science quotes on:  |  Acid (83)  |  Air (347)  |  Artificial (33)  |  Available (78)  |  Become (815)  |  Body (537)  |  Carbon (65)  |  Carbonic Acid (4)  |  Cell (138)  |  Cellar (4)  |  Chemical (292)  |  Chemical Energy (3)  |  Complicated (115)  |  Compound (113)  |  Convert (22)  |  Corn (19)  |  Digestion (28)  |  Effort (227)  |  Employ (113)  |  Energy (344)  |  Field (364)  |  Food (199)  |  Gigantic (40)  |  Latent (12)  |  More (2559)  |  More Or Less (68)  |  Muscular (2)  |  Obtain (163)  |  Patch (8)  |  Plant (294)  |  Potato (10)  |  Power (746)  |  Present (619)  |  Process (423)  |  Produced (187)  |  Recourse (12)  |  Repair (11)  |  Replace (31)  |  Source (93)  |  Sun (385)  |  Sunlight (23)  |  Use (766)  |  Vast (177)  |  Vegetable (46)  |  Warm (69)  |  Wasted (2)  |  World (1774)

For terrestrial vertebrates, the climate in the usual meteorological sense of the term would appear to be a reasonable approximation of the conditions of temperature, humidity, radiation, and air movement in which terrestrial vertebrates live. But, in fact, it would be difficult to find any other lay assumption about ecology and natural history which has less general validity. … Most vertebrates are much smaller than man and his domestic animals, and the universe of these small creatures is one of cracks and crevices, holes in logs, dense underbrush, tunnels, and nests—a world where distances are measured in yards rather than miles and where the difference between sunshine and shadow may be the difference between life and death. Actually, climate in the usual sense of the term is little more than a crude index to the physical conditions in which most terrestrial animals live.
From 'Interaction of physiology and behavior under natural conditions', collected in R.I. Bowman (ed.), The Galapagos (1966), 40.
Science quotes on:  |  Actually (27)  |  Air (347)  |  Animal (617)  |  Appear (118)  |  Approximation (31)  |  Assumption (92)  |  Climate (97)  |  Condition (356)  |  Crack (15)  |  Creature (233)  |  Crude (31)  |  Death (388)  |  Dense (5)  |  Difference (337)  |  Difficult (246)  |  Distance (161)  |  Domestic (26)  |  Ecology (74)  |  Fact (1210)  |  Find (998)  |  General (511)  |  History (673)  |  Hole (16)  |  Humidity (3)  |  Index (4)  |  Less (103)  |  Lie (364)  |  Life (1795)  |  Little (707)  |  Live (628)  |  Log (5)  |  Man (2251)  |  Measure (232)  |  Mile (39)  |  More (2559)  |  Most (1731)  |  Movement (155)  |  Natural (796)  |  Natural History (70)  |  Nest (23)  |  Other (2236)  |  Physical (508)  |  Reasonable (27)  |  Sense (770)  |  Shadow (72)  |  Small (477)  |  Sunshine (10)  |  Temperature (79)  |  Term (349)  |  Terrestrial (61)  |  Tunnel (13)  |  Underbrush (2)  |  Universe (857)  |  Validity (47)  |  Vertebrate (20)  |  World (1774)  |  Yard (7)

For the evolution of science by societies the main requisite is the perfect freedom of communication between each member and anyone of the others who may act as a reagent.
The gaseous condition is exemplified in the soiree, where the members rush about confusedly, and the only communication is during a collision, which in some instances may be prolonged by button-holing.
The opposite condition, the crystalline, is shown in the lecture, where the members sit in rows, while science flows in an uninterrupted stream from a source which we take as the origin. This is radiation of science. Conduction takes place along the series of members seated round a dinner table, and fixed there for several hours, with flowers in the middle to prevent any cross currents.
The condition most favourable to life is an intermediate plastic or colloidal condition, where the order of business is (1) Greetings and confused talk; (2) A short communication from one who has something to say and to show; (3) Remarks on the communication addressed to the Chair, introducing matters irrelevant to the communication but interesting to the members; (4) This lets each member see who is interested in his special hobby, and who is likely to help him; and leads to (5) Confused conversation and examination of objects on the table.
I have not indicated how this programme is to be combined with eating.
Letter to William Grylls Adams (3 Dec 1873). In P. M. Harman (ed.), The Scientific Letters and Papers of James Clerk Maxwell (1995), Vol. 2, 1862-1873, 949-50.
Science quotes on:  |  Act (272)  |  Business (149)  |  Chair (24)  |  Collision (15)  |  Colloid (5)  |  Communication (94)  |  Condition (356)  |  Conduction (8)  |  Confusion (57)  |  Conversation (43)  |  Crystal (68)  |  Current (118)  |  Dinner (15)  |  Eat (104)  |  Eating (45)  |  Evolution (590)  |  Examination (98)  |  Flow (83)  |  Flower (106)  |  Freedom (129)  |  Gas (83)  |  Greeting (9)  |  Hobby (5)  |  Hour (186)  |  Interest (386)  |  Interesting (153)  |  Intermediate (37)  |  Irrelevant (9)  |  Lead (384)  |  Lecture (105)  |  Life (1795)  |  Matter (798)  |  Most (1731)  |  Object (422)  |  Opposite (104)  |  Order (632)  |  Origin (239)  |  Other (2236)  |  Perfect (216)  |  Plastic (28)  |  Prevent (94)  |  Program (52)  |  Prolong (29)  |  Reagent (8)  |  Remark (28)  |  Requisite (11)  |  Say (984)  |  Science (3879)  |  See (1081)  |  Series (149)  |  Short (197)  |  Show (346)  |  Society (326)  |  Something (719)  |  Something To Say (4)  |  Special (184)  |  Stream (81)  |  Table (104)  |  Talk (100)  |  Uninterrupted (7)

Heart and Brain are the two lords of life. In the metaphors of ordinary speech and in the stricter language of science, we use these terms to indicate two central powers, from which all motives radiate, to which all influences converge.
From 'The Principles of Success in Literature', The Fortnightly (1865), 1, 66.
Science quotes on:  |  All (4108)  |  Brain (270)  |  Central (80)  |  Converge (8)  |  Convergence (4)  |  Heart (229)  |  Indicate (61)  |  Indication (33)  |  Influence (222)  |  Language (293)  |  Life (1795)  |  Lord (93)  |  Metaphor (33)  |  Motive (59)  |  Ordinary (160)  |  Power (746)  |  Science (3879)  |  Speech (61)  |  Strictness (2)  |  Term (349)  |  Terms (184)  |  Two (937)  |  Use (766)

I found out that the main ability to have was a visual, and also an almost tactile, way to imagine the physical situations, rather than a merely logical picture of the problems. … Very soon I discovered that if one gets a feeling for no more than a dozen … radiation and nuclear constants, one can imagine the subatomic world almost tangibly, and manipulate the picture dimensionally and qualitatively, before calculating more precise relationships.
In Adventures of a Mathematician (1976), 147.
Science quotes on:  |  Ability (152)  |  Calculate (54)  |  Constant (144)  |  Dimension (61)  |  Discover (553)  |  Dozen (10)  |  Feeling (250)  |  Imagine (164)  |  Logical (55)  |  Manipulate (10)  |  Merely (316)  |  More (2559)  |  Nuclear (107)  |  Physical (508)  |  Picture (143)  |  Precise (68)  |  Problem (676)  |  Qualitative (14)  |  Relationship (104)  |  Situation (113)  |  Soon (186)  |  Subatomic (10)  |  Tangible (15)  |  Visual (15)  |  Way (1217)  |  World (1774)

I have satisfied myself that the [cosmic] rays are not generated by the formation of new matter in space, a process which would be like water running up a hill. Nor do they come to any appreciable amount from the stars. According to my investigations the sun emits a radiation of such penetrative power that it is virtually impossible to absorb it in lead or other substances. ... This ray, which I call the primary solar ray, gives rise to a secondary radiation by impact against the cosmic dust scattered through space. It is the secondary radiation which now is commonly called the cosmic ray, and comes, of course, equally from all directions in space. [The article continues: The phenomena of radioactivity are not the result of forces within the radioactive substances but are caused by this ray emitted by the sun. If radium could be screened effectively against this ray it would cease to be radioactive, he said.]
Quoted in 'Tesla, 75, Predicts New Power Source', New York Times (5 Jul 1931), Section 2, 1.
Science quotes on:  |  Absorb (49)  |  According (237)  |  Against (332)  |  All (4108)  |  Amount (151)  |  Call (769)  |  Cease (79)  |  Continue (165)  |  Cosmic (72)  |  Cosmic Ray (7)  |  Course (409)  |  Direction (175)  |  Do (1908)  |  Dust (64)  |  Emit (15)  |  Equally (130)  |  Force (487)  |  Formation (96)  |  Hill (20)  |  Impact (42)  |  Impossible (251)  |  Investigation (230)  |  Lead (384)  |  Matter (798)  |  Myself (212)  |  New (1216)  |  Other (2236)  |  Penetration (18)  |  Power (746)  |  Primary (80)  |  Process (423)  |  Radioactive (22)  |  Radioactivity (30)  |  Radium (25)  |  Ray (114)  |  Result (677)  |  Rise (166)  |  Running (61)  |  Solar Energy (20)  |  Space (500)  |  Star (427)  |  Stars (304)  |  Substance (248)  |  Sun (385)  |  Through (849)  |  Water (481)

I will insist particularly upon the following fact, which seems to me quite important and beyond the phenomena which one could expect to observe: The same [double sulfate of uranium and potassium] crystalline crusts, arranged the same way [as reported to the French academy on 24 Feb 1896] with respect to the photographic plates, in the same conditions and through the same screens, but sheltered from the excitation of incident rays and kept in darkness, still produce the same photographic images … [when kept from 26 Feb 1896] in the darkness of a bureau drawer. … I developed the photographic plates on the 1st of March, expecting to find the images very weak. Instead the silhouettes appeared with great intensity.
It is important to observe that it appears this phenomenon must not be attributed to the luminous radiation emitted by phosphorescence … One hypothesis which presents itself to the mind naturally enough would be to suppose that these rays, whose effects have a great similarity to the effects produced by the rays studied by M. Lenard and M. Röntgen, are invisible rays …
[Having eliminated phosphorescence as a cause, he has further revealed the effect of the as yet unknown radioactivity.]
Read at French Academy of Science (2 Mar 1896). In Comptes Rendus (1896), 122, 501. As translated by Carmen Giunta on the Classic Chemistry web site.
Science quotes on:  |  Academy (35)  |  Beyond (308)  |  Cause (541)  |  Condition (356)  |  Crust (38)  |  Darkness (68)  |  Develop (268)  |  Discovery (780)  |  Effect (393)  |  Enough (340)  |  Excitation (9)  |  Expect (200)  |  Fact (1210)  |  Find (998)  |  Great (1574)  |  Hypothesis (296)  |  Image (96)  |  Intensity (34)  |  Invisible (63)  |  Luminous (18)  |  March (46)  |  Mind (1338)  |  Must (1526)  |  Observe (168)  |  Phenomenon (318)  |  Phosphorescence (2)  |  Photograph (19)  |  Potassium (11)  |  Present (619)  |  Produced (187)  |  Radioactivity (30)  |  Ray (114)  |  Respect (207)  |  Reveal (148)  |  Revealed (60)  |  Wilhelm Röntgen (8)  |  Shelter (22)  |  Silhouette (3)  |  Similarity (31)  |  Still (613)  |  Suppose (156)  |  Through (849)  |  Unknown (182)  |  Uranium (20)  |  Way (1217)  |  Weak (71)  |  Will (2355)

If a body releases the energy L in the form of radiation, its mass is decreased by L/V2.
[Now expressed as E= mc2 where E=energy, m=mass, c=velocity of light. This relationship of mass and energy initiated the atomic era.]
Annalen der Physik, 1905, 18, 639-641. Quoted in Alice Calaprice, The Quotable Einstein (1996), 165.
Science quotes on:  |  Body (537)  |  Energy (344)  |  Era (51)  |  Express (186)  |  Form (959)  |  Light (607)  |  Mass (157)  |  Relationship (104)  |  Release (27)  |  Velocity (48)

If our tongues were as sensitive as these radiation detectors, we could easily taste one drop of vermouth in five carloads of gin.
Quoted in Esther Stineman, American Political Women (1980).
Science quotes on:  |  Drop (76)  |  Taste (90)  |  Tongue (43)

If we ascribe the ejection of the proton to a Compton recoil from a quantum of 52 x 106 electron volts, then the nitrogen recoil atom arising by a similar process should have an energy not greater than about 400,000 volts, should produce not more than about 10,000 ions, and have a range in the air at N.T.P. of about 1-3mm. Actually, some of the recoil atoms in nitrogen produce at least 30,000 ions. In collaboration with Dr. Feather, I have observed the recoil atoms in an expansion chamber, and their range, estimated visually, was sometimes as much as 3mm. at N.T.P.
These results, and others I have obtained in the course of the work, are very difficult to explain on the assumption that the radiation from beryllium is a quantum radiation, if energy and momentum are to be conserved in the collisions. The difficulties disappear, however, if it be assumed that the radiation consists of particles of mass 1 and charge 0, or neutrons. The capture of the a-particle by the Be9 nucleus may be supposed to result in the formation of a C12 nucleus and the emission of the neutron. From the energy relations of this process the velocity of the neutron emitted in the forward direction may well be about 3 x 109 cm. per sec. The collisions of this neutron with the atoms through which it passes give rise to the recoil atoms, and the observed energies of the recoil atoms are in fair agreement with this view. Moreover, I have observed that the protons ejected from hydrogen by the radiation emitted in the opposite direction to that of the exciting a-particle appear to have a much smaller range than those ejected by the forward radiation.
This again receives a simple explanation on the neutron hypothesis.
'Possible Existence of a Neutron', Letter to the Editor, Nature, 1932, 129, 312.
Science quotes on:  |  Agreement (53)  |  Air (347)  |  Arising (22)  |  Assumption (92)  |  Atom (355)  |  Beryllium (3)  |  Charge (59)  |  Collaboration (15)  |  Collision (15)  |  Consist (223)  |  Course (409)  |  Difficult (246)  |  Direction (175)  |  Disappear (82)  |  Electron (93)  |  Energy (344)  |  Exciting (47)  |  Expansion (41)  |  Explain (322)  |  Explanation (234)  |  Formation (96)  |  Forward (102)  |  Greater (288)  |  Hydrogen (75)  |  Hypothesis (296)  |  Ion (21)  |  Mass (157)  |  Momentum (9)  |  More (2559)  |  Neutron (17)  |  Nitrogen (26)  |  Nucleus (49)  |  Observed (149)  |  Obtain (163)  |  Opposite (104)  |  Other (2236)  |  Particle (194)  |  Process (423)  |  Proton (21)  |  Quantum (117)  |  Range (99)  |  Receive (114)  |  Result (677)  |  Rise (166)  |  Simple (406)  |  Through (849)  |  Velocity (48)  |  View (488)  |  Work (1351)

If, then, the motion of every particle of matter in the universe were precisely reversed at any instant, the course of nature would be simply reversed for ever after. The bursting bubble of foam at the foot of a waterfall would reunite and descend into the water; the thermal motions would reconcentrate their energy, and throw the mass up the fall in drops re-forming into a close column of ascending water. Heat which had been generated by the friction of solids and dissipated by conduction, and radiation, and radiation with absorption, would come again to the place of contact, and throw the moving body back against the force to which it had previously yielded. Boulders would recover from the mud materials required to rebuild them into their previous jagged forms, and would become reunited to the mountain peak from which they had formerly broken away. And if also the materialistic hypothesis of life were true, living creatures would grow backwards, with conscious knowledge of the future but no memory of the past, and would become again unborn.
In 'The Kinetic Theory of the Dissipation of Energy', Nature (1874), 9, 442.
Science quotes on:  |  Absorption (12)  |  Against (332)  |  Back (390)  |  Backwards (17)  |  Become (815)  |  Body (537)  |  Boulder (8)  |  Broken (56)  |  Bubble (22)  |  Conduction (8)  |  Contact (65)  |  Course (409)  |  Creature (233)  |  Descend (47)  |  Drop (76)  |  Energy (344)  |  Fall (230)  |  Force (487)  |  Form (959)  |  Forming (42)  |  Friction (14)  |  Future (429)  |  Grow (238)  |  Heat (174)  |  Hypothesis (296)  |  Instant (45)  |  Knowledge (1529)  |  Life (1795)  |  Living (491)  |  Mass (157)  |  Material (353)  |  Matter (798)  |  Memory (134)  |  Motion (310)  |  Mountain (185)  |  Mud (26)  |  Nature (1926)  |  Particle (194)  |  Past (337)  |  Precisely (92)  |  Required (108)  |  Solid (116)  |  Thermal (15)  |  Universe (857)  |  Water (481)  |  Waterfall (4)  |  Yield (81)

In August, 1896, I exposed the sodium flame to large magnetic forces by placing it between the poles of a strong electromagnet. Again I studied the radiation of the flame by means of Rowland's mirror, the observations being made in the direction perpendicular to the lines of force. Each line, which in the absence of the effect of the magnetic forces was very sharply defined, was now broadened. This indicated that not only the original oscillations, but also others with greater and again others with smaller periods of oscillation were being radiated by the flame. The change was however very small. In an easily produced magnetic field it corresponded to a thirtieth of the distance between the two sodium lines, say two tenths of an Angstrom, a unit of measure whose name will always recall to physicists the meritorious work done by the father of my esteemed colleague.
'Light Radiation in a Magnetic Field', Nobel Lecture, 2 May 1903. In Nobel Lectures: Physics 1901-1921 (1967), 34-5.
Science quotes on:  |   (2863)  |  Being (1278)  |  Change (593)  |  Colleague (50)  |  Direction (175)  |  Distance (161)  |  Effect (393)  |  Exposed (33)  |  Father (110)  |  Field (364)  |  Flame (40)  |  Force (487)  |  Greater (288)  |  Large (394)  |  Magnetic (44)  |  Magnetic Field (7)  |  Mean (809)  |  Means (579)  |  Measure (232)  |  Mirror (41)  |  Name (333)  |  Observation (555)  |  Oscillation (13)  |  Other (2236)  |  Period (198)  |  Physicist (259)  |  Pole (46)  |  Produced (187)  |  Say (984)  |  Small (477)  |  Sodium (14)  |  Spectral Line (5)  |  Spectroscopy (11)  |  Strong (174)  |  Two (937)  |  Will (2355)  |  Work (1351)

In discussing the state of the atmosphere following a nuclear exchange, we point especially to the effects of the many fires that would be ignited by the thousands of nuclear explosions in cities, forests, agricultural fields, and oil and gas fields. As a result of these fires, the loading of the atmosphere with strongly light absorbing particles in the submicron size range (1 micron = 10-6 m) would increase so much that at noon solar radiation at the ground would be reduced by at least a factor of two and possibly a factor of greater than one hundred.
Paul J. Crutzen -and John W. Birks (1946-, American chemist), 'The Atmosphere after a Nuclear War: Twilight at Noon', Ambio, 1982, 11, 115.
Science quotes on:  |  Atmosphere (103)  |  Atomic Bomb (111)  |  Effect (393)  |  Exchange (37)  |  Explosion (44)  |  Field (364)  |  Fire (189)  |  Forest (150)  |  Gas (83)  |  Greater (288)  |  Ground (217)  |  Hundred (229)  |  Increase (210)  |  Light (607)  |  Noon (14)  |  Nuclear (107)  |  Oil (59)  |  Particle (194)  |  Point (580)  |  Possibly (111)  |  Range (99)  |  Result (677)  |  State (491)  |  Thousand (331)  |  Two (937)  |  War (225)

In our daily lives, we enjoy the pervasive benefits of long-lived robotic spacecraft that provide high-capacity worldwide telecommunications; reconnaissance of Earth’s solid surface and oceans, with far-reaching cultural and environmental implications; much-improved weather and climatic forecasts; improved knowledge about the terrestrial effects of the Sun’s radiations; a revolutionary new global navigational system for all manner of aircraft and many other uses both civil and military; and the science of Earth itself as a sustainable abode of life.
In 'Is Human Spaceflight Obsolete?', Issues in Science and Technology (Summer 2004).
Science quotes on:  |   (2863)  |  Abode (2)  |  Aircraft (8)  |  All (4108)  |  Benefit (114)  |  Both (493)  |  Capacity (100)  |  Civil (26)  |  Climate (97)  |  Cultural (25)  |  Daily (87)  |  Daily Life (17)  |  Earth (996)  |  Effect (393)  |  Environment (216)  |  Forecast (13)  |  Global (35)  |  GPS (2)  |  High (362)  |  Implication (23)  |  Improve (58)  |  Knowledge (1529)  |  Life (1795)  |  Live (628)  |  Long (790)  |  Manner (58)  |  Military (40)  |  New (1216)  |  Ocean (202)  |  Other (2236)  |  Pervasive (5)  |  Revolutionary (31)  |  Robot (13)  |  Science (3879)  |  Solid (116)  |  Spacecraft (6)  |  Sun (385)  |  Surface (209)  |  Sustainable (12)  |  System (537)  |  Terrestrial (61)  |  Use (766)  |  Weather (44)  |  Worldwide (16)

Like taxes, radioactivity has long been with us and in increasing amounts; it is not to be hated and feared, but accepted and controlled. Radiation is dangerous, let there be no mistake about that—but the modern world abounds in dangerous substances and situations too numerous to mention. ... Consider radiation as something to be treated with respect, avoided when practicable, and accepted when inevitable.
Recommending the same view towards radiation as the risks of automobile travel.
While in the Office of Naval Research. In Must we Hide? (1949), 44.
Science quotes on:  |  Abound (17)  |  Accept (191)  |  Amount (151)  |  Automobile (22)  |  Avoid (116)  |  Consider (416)  |  Control (167)  |  Danger (115)  |  Dangerous (105)  |  Fear (197)  |  Hate (64)  |  Increase (210)  |  Inevitable (49)  |  Long (790)  |  Mention (82)  |  Mistake (169)  |  Modern (385)  |  Numerous (68)  |  Radioactivity (30)  |  Respect (207)  |  Risk (61)  |  Situation (113)  |  Something (719)  |  Substance (248)  |  Tax (26)  |  Travel (114)  |  View (488)  |  World (1774)

My experiments proved that the radiation of uranium compounds ... is an atomic property of the element of uranium. Its intensity is proportional to the quantity of uranium contained in the compound, and depends neither on conditions of chemical combination, nor on external circumstances, such as light or temperature.
... The radiation of thorium has an intensity of the same order as that of uranium, and is, as in the case of uranium, an atomic property of the element.
It was necessary at this point to find a new term to define this new property of matter manifested by the elements of uranium and thorium. I proposed the word radioactivity which has since become generally adopted; the radioactive elements have been called radio elements.
In Pierre Curie, with the Autobiographical Notes of Marie Curie, trans. Charlotte and Vernon Kellogg (1923), 96. Also in reprint (2012) 45-46.
Science quotes on:  |  Become (815)  |  Call (769)  |  Chemical (292)  |  Circumstance (136)  |  Circumstances (108)  |  Combination (144)  |  Compound (113)  |  Condition (356)  |  Depend (228)  |  Element (310)  |  Experiment (695)  |  Find (998)  |  Intensity (34)  |  Light (607)  |  Matter (798)  |  Necessary (363)  |  New (1216)  |  Nomencalture (4)  |  Order (632)  |  Point (580)  |  Property (168)  |  Quantity (132)  |  Radio (50)  |  Radioactive (22)  |  Radioactivity (30)  |  Temperature (79)  |  Term (349)  |  Thorium (5)  |  Uranium (20)  |  Word (619)

Now it is a well-known principle of zoological evolution that an isolated region, if large and sufficiently varied in its topography, soil, climate and vegetation, will give rise to a diversified fauna according to the law of adaptive radiation from primitive and central types. Branches will spring off in all directions to take advantage of every possible opportunity of securing food. The modifications which animals undergo in this adaptive radiation are largely of mechanical nature, they are limited in number and kind by hereditary, stirp or germinal influences, and thus result in the independent evolution of similar types in widely-separated regions under the law of parallelism or homoplasy. This law causes the independent origin not only of similar genera but of similar families and even of our similar orders. Nature thus repeats herself upon a vast scale, but the similarity is never complete and exact.
'The Geological and Faunal Relations of Europe and America during the Tertiary Period and the Theory of the Successive Invasions of an African Fauna', Science (1900), 11, 563-64.
Science quotes on:  |  According (237)  |  Adaptation (58)  |  Advantage (134)  |  All (4108)  |  Animal (617)  |  Branch (150)  |  Cause (541)  |  Central (80)  |  Climate (97)  |  Complete (204)  |  Completeness (19)  |  Direction (175)  |  Evolution (590)  |  Exactness (29)  |  Family (94)  |  Fauna (13)  |  Food (199)  |  Genus (25)  |  Heredity (60)  |  Independence (34)  |  Influence (222)  |  Isolation (31)  |  Kind (557)  |  Known (454)  |  Large (394)  |  Law (894)  |  Limit (280)  |  Limited (101)  |  Mechanical (140)  |  Modification (55)  |  Nature (1926)  |  Never (1087)  |  Number (699)  |  Opportunity (87)  |  Order (632)  |  Origin (239)  |  Parallelism (2)  |  Possible (552)  |  Primitive (75)  |  Principle (507)  |  Region (36)  |  Repetition (28)  |  Result (677)  |  Rise (166)  |  Scale (121)  |  Similarity (31)  |  Soil (86)  |  Spring (133)  |  Type (167)  |  Variation (90)  |  Vast (177)  |  Vegetation (23)  |  Will (2355)  |  Zoology (36)

Our knowledge of stars and interstellar matter must be based primarily on the electromagnetic radiation which reaches us. Nature has thoughtfully provided us with a universe in which radiant energy of almost all wave lengths travels in straight lines over enormous distances with usually rather negligible absorption.
In 'Flying Telescopes', Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists (May 1961), Vol. 17, No. 5, 191.
Science quotes on:  |  Absorption (12)  |  All (4108)  |  Astronomy (229)  |  Distance (161)  |  Electromagnetic Radiation (2)  |  Energy (344)  |  Enormous (41)  |  Interstellar (8)  |  Knowledge (1529)  |  Matter (798)  |  Must (1526)  |  Nature (1926)  |  Negligible (5)  |  Radiant (15)  |  Star (427)  |  Stars (304)  |  Straight (73)  |  Straight Line (30)  |  Thoughtful (15)  |  Travel (114)  |  Universe (857)  |  Usually (176)  |  Wave (107)  |  Wavelength (8)

Physicists do, of course, show a healthy respect for High Voltage, Radiation, and Liquid Hydrogen signs. They are not reckless. I can think of only six who have been killed on the job.
In Adventures of a Physicist (1987), 14.
Science quotes on:  |  Course (409)  |  Death (388)  |  Do (1908)  |  Healthy (68)  |  High (362)  |  High Voltage (2)  |  Hydrogen (75)  |  Job (82)  |  Kill (100)  |  Liquid (50)  |  Physicist (259)  |  Reckless (4)  |  Respect (207)  |  Show (346)  |  Think (1086)  |  Voltage (3)

Radiation, unlike smoking, drinking, and overeating, gives no pleasure, so the possible victims object.
As given in The Journal of NIH Research (1990), 2, 30
Science quotes on:  |  Atomic Bomb (111)  |  Drinking (21)  |  Giving (11)  |  Object (422)  |  Pleasure (178)  |  Possible (552)  |  Smoking (27)  |  Unlike (8)  |  Victim (35)

So the dividing line between the wave or particle nature of matter and radiation is the moment “Now”. As this moment steadily advances through time, it coagulates a wavy future into a particle past.
In The Development of X-ray analysis (1975) 13.
Science quotes on:  |  Advance (280)  |  Coagulate (2)  |  Division (65)  |  Future (429)  |  Matter (798)  |  Moment (253)  |  Nature (1926)  |  Particle (194)  |  Past (337)  |  Through (849)  |  Time (1877)  |  Wave (107)

Some months ago we discovered that certain light elements emit positrons under the action of alpha particles. Our latest experiments have shown a very striking fact: when an aluminium foil is irradiated on a polonium preparation [alpha ray emitter], the emission of positrons does not cease immediately when the active preparation is removed: the foil remains radioactive and the emission of radiation decays exponentially as for an ordinary radio-element. We observed the same phenomenon with boron and magnesium.
[Co-author with Irène Joliot-Curie. This one-page paper reported their discovery of artificial radioactivity for which they were awarded the 1935 Nobel Prize for Chemistry.]
Letter to the Editor, 'Artificial Production of a New Kind of Radio-Element'(10 Jan 1934) published in Nature (1934), 133, 201-2. Cited in Mauro Dardo, Nobel Laureates and Twentieth-Century Physics (2004), 187.
Science quotes on:  |  Action (327)  |  Active (76)  |  Alpha Particle (5)  |  Alpha Ray (3)  |  Aluminium (3)  |  Artificial (33)  |  Author (167)  |  Award (13)  |  Boron (4)  |  Cease (79)  |  Certain (550)  |  Chemistry (353)  |  Decay (53)  |  Discover (553)  |  Discovery (780)  |  Element (310)  |  Emission (17)  |  Emit (15)  |  Experiment (695)  |  Exponential (3)  |  Fact (1210)  |  Foil (3)  |  Immediately (114)  |  Light (607)  |  Magnesium (4)  |  Month (88)  |  Nobel Prize (40)  |  Observation (555)  |  Observed (149)  |  Ordinary (160)  |  Paper (182)  |  Particle (194)  |  Phenomenon (318)  |  Polonium (5)  |  Positron (4)  |  Preparation (58)  |  Radio (50)  |  Radioactive (22)  |  Radioactivity (30)  |  Ray (114)  |  Remain (349)  |  Striking (48)

Suddenly there was an enormous explosion, like a violent volcano. The nuclear reactions had led to overheating in the underground burial grounds. The explosion poured radioactive dust and materials high up into the sky. It was just the wrong weather for such a tragedy. Strong winds blew the radioactive clouds hundreds of miles away. It was difficult to gauge the extent of the disaster immediately, and no evacuation plan was put into operation right away. Many villages and towns were only ordered to evacuate when the symptoms of radiation sickness were already quite apparent. Tens of thousands of people were affected, hundreds dying, though the real figures have never been made public. The large area, where the accident happened, is still considered dangerous and is closed to the public.
'Two Decades of Dissidence', New Scientist (4 Nov 1976), 72, No. 72, 265.
Science quotes on:  |  Accident (88)  |  Affected (3)  |  Already (222)  |  Apparent (84)  |  Area (31)  |  Atomic Energy (24)  |  Burial (7)  |  Closed (38)  |  Cloud (104)  |  Consider (416)  |  Considered (12)  |  Dangerous (105)  |  Die (86)  |  Difficult (246)  |  Disaster (51)  |  Dust (64)  |  Enormous (41)  |  Explosion (44)  |  Extent (139)  |  Figure (160)  |  Gauge (2)  |  Ground (217)  |  Happen (274)  |  Happened (88)  |  Heat (174)  |  High (362)  |  Hundred (229)  |  Immediate (95)  |  Immediately (114)  |  Large (394)  |  Material (353)  |  Mile (39)  |  Never (1087)  |  Nuclear (107)  |  Operation (213)  |  Order (632)  |  People (1005)  |  Plan (117)  |  Public (96)  |  Radioactive (22)  |  Reaction (104)  |  Real (149)  |  Right (452)  |  Sickness (26)  |  Sky (161)  |  Still (613)  |  Strong (174)  |  Sudden (67)  |  Suddenly (88)  |  Symptom (34)  |  Thousand (331)  |  Total (94)  |  Town (27)  |  Tragedy (29)  |  Underground (11)  |  Village (7)  |  Violent (17)  |  Volcano (39)  |  Weather (44)  |  Wind (128)  |  Wrong (234)

The Atomic Age was born in secrecy, and for two decades after Hiroshima, the high priests of the cult of the atom concealed vital information about the risks to human health posed by radiation. Dr. Alice Stewart, an audacious and insightful medical researcher, was one of the first experts to alert the world to the dangers of low-level radiation.
(Udeall is a former U.S. Secretary of the Interior.)
Quoted in Gayle Jacoba Greene, The Woman Who Knew Too Much (1999), back cover.
Science quotes on:  |   (2863)  |  Age (499)  |  Alert (13)  |  Atom (355)  |  Atomic Age (6)  |  Atomic Bomb (111)  |  Concealed (25)  |  Danger (115)  |  Decade (59)  |  Expert (65)  |  First (1283)  |  Former (137)  |  Health (193)  |  High (362)  |  Hiroshima (18)  |  Human (1468)  |  Information (166)  |  Interior (32)  |  Low (80)  |  Priest (28)  |  Researcher (33)  |  Risk (61)  |  Alice Stewart (5)  |  Two (937)  |  Vital (85)  |  World (1774)

The dividing line between the wave or particle nature of matter and radiation is the moment “Now.” As this moment steadily advances through time it coagulates a wavy future into a particle past.
Attributed.
Science quotes on:  |  Advance (280)  |  Future (429)  |  Matter (798)  |  Moment (253)  |  Nature (1926)  |  Particle (194)  |  Past (337)  |  Quantum Theory (66)  |  Through (849)  |  Time (1877)  |  Wave (107)

The fact that the general incidence of leukemia has doubled in the last two decades may be due, partly, to the increasing use of x-rays for numerous purposes. The incidence of leukemia in doctors, who are likely to be so exposed, is twice that of the general public. In radiologists … the incidence is ten times greater.
(1965). In Isaac Asimov’s Book of Science and Nature Quotations (1988), 233.
Science quotes on:  |  Decade (59)  |  Doctor (187)  |  Due (141)  |  Exposed (33)  |  Fact (1210)  |  General (511)  |  Greater (288)  |  Last (426)  |  Leukemia (4)  |  Numerous (68)  |  Purpose (317)  |  Ray (114)  |  Time (1877)  |  Two (937)  |  Use (766)  |  X-ray (37)

The incomplete knowledge of a system must be an essential part of every formulation in quantum theory. Quantum theoretical laws must be of a statistical kind. To give an example: we know that the radium atom emits alpha-radiation. Quantum theory can give us an indication of the probability that the alpha-particle will leave the nucleus in unit time, but it cannot predict at what precise point in time the emission will occur, for this is uncertain in principle.
The Physicist's Conception of Nature (1958), 41.
Science quotes on:  |  Alpha Particle (5)  |  Atom (355)  |  Emit (15)  |  Essential (199)  |  Formulation (36)  |  Incomplete (30)  |  Indication (33)  |  Kind (557)  |  Know (1518)  |  Knowledge (1529)  |  Law (894)  |  Must (1526)  |  Nucleus (49)  |  Occur (150)  |  Particle (194)  |  Point (580)  |  Precise (68)  |  Predict (79)  |  Principle (507)  |  Probability (130)  |  Quantum (117)  |  Quantum Physics (18)  |  Quantum Theory (66)  |  Radioactivity (30)  |  Radium (25)  |  System (537)  |  Theory (970)  |  Time (1877)  |  Uncertain (44)  |  Uncertainty (56)  |  Will (2355)

The most important thing accomplished by the ultimate discovery of the 3 °K radiation background (Penzias and Wilson, 1965) was to force all of us to take seriously the idea that there was an early universe.
In The First Three Minutes: A Modern View of the Origin of the Universe (1977, 1993), 131-132.
Science quotes on:  |  Accomplishment (93)  |  All (4108)  |  Background (43)  |  Background Radiation (3)  |  Discovery (780)  |  Early (185)  |  Force (487)  |  Idea (843)  |  Important (209)  |  Most (1731)  |  Arno Penzias (2)  |  Serious (91)  |  Thing (1915)  |  Ultimate (144)  |  Universe (857)  |  Robert Woodrow Wilson (5)

The radiation of radium was “contagious”—Contagious like a persistent scent or a disease. It was impossible for an object, a plant, an animal or a person to be left near a tube of radium without immediately acquiring a notable “activity” which a sensitive apparatus could detect.
Eve Curie
In Eve Curie, Madame Curie: a Biography by Eve Curie (1937, 2007), 196.
Science quotes on:  |  Activity (210)  |  Animal (617)  |  Apparatus (68)  |  Contagious (4)  |  Detect (44)  |  Disease (328)  |  Immediately (114)  |  Impossibility (61)  |  Impossible (251)  |  Measurement (174)  |  Object (422)  |  Persistence (24)  |  Persistent (18)  |  Person (363)  |  Plant (294)  |  Radioactivity (30)  |  Radium (25)  |  Scent (7)

The spectral density of black body radiation ... represents something absolute, and since the search for the absolutes has always appeared to me to be the highest form of research, I applied myself vigorously to its solution.
In Michael Dudley Sturge , Statistical and Thermal Physics (2003), 201.
Science quotes on:  |  Absolute (145)  |  Applied (177)  |  Biography (240)  |  Black Body (2)  |  Body (537)  |  Density (25)  |  Form (959)  |  Myself (212)  |  Represent (155)  |  Research (664)  |  Search (162)  |  Solution (267)  |  Something (719)

The tendency of modern physics is to resolve the whole material universe into waves, and nothing but waves. These waves are of two kinds: bottled-up waves, which we call matter, and unbottled waves, which we call radiation or light. If annihilation of matter occurs, the process is merely that of unbottling imprisoned wave-energy and setting it free to travel through space. These concepts reduce the whole universe to a world of light, potential or existent, so that the whole story of its creation can be told with perfect accuracy and completeness in the six words: 'God said, Let there be light'.
In The Mysterious Universe (1930, 1932), 97-98
Science quotes on:  |  Accuracy (78)  |  Annihilation (14)  |  Bottled-Up (2)  |  Call (769)  |  Completeness (19)  |  Concept (221)  |  Creation (327)  |  Energy (344)  |  Free (232)  |  God (757)  |  Imprison (10)  |  Kind (557)  |  Let There Be Light (4)  |  Light (607)  |  Material (353)  |  Matter (798)  |  Merely (316)  |  Modern (385)  |  Modern Physics (23)  |  Nothing (966)  |  Occur (150)  |  Perfect (216)  |  Physic (517)  |  Physics (533)  |  Potential (69)  |  Process (423)  |  Reduce (94)  |  Resolve (40)  |  Setting (44)  |  Space (500)  |  Story (118)  |  Tendency (99)  |  Through (849)  |  Travel (114)  |  Two (937)  |  Universe (857)  |  Wave (107)  |  Whole (738)  |  Word (619)  |  World (1774)

What signifies Philosophy that does not apply to some Use? May we not learn from hence, that black Clothes are not so fit to wear in a hot Sunny Climate or Season, as white ones; because in such Cloaths the Body is more heated by the Sun when we walk abroad, and are at the same time heated by the Exercise, which double Heat is apt to bring on putrid dangerous Fevers? The Soldiers and Seamen, who must march and labour in the Sun, should in the East or West Indies have an Uniform of white?
Letter to Miss Mary Stevenson, 20 Sep 1761. In Albert Henry Smyth (ed.), The Writings of Benjamin Franklin (1906), Vol. 4, 115.
Science quotes on:  |  Abroad (18)  |  Apply (160)  |  Body (537)  |  Climate (97)  |  Dangerous (105)  |  Exercise (110)  |  Fever (29)  |  Fit (134)  |  Heat (174)  |  Hot (60)  |  Labour (98)  |  Learn (629)  |  March (46)  |  More (2559)  |  Must (1526)  |  Philosophy (380)  |  Season (47)  |  Soldier (26)  |  Sun (385)  |  Time (1877)  |  Use (766)  |  Walk (124)  |  White (127)

When ultra-violet light acts on a mixture of water, carbon dioxide, and ammonia, a vast variety of organic substances are made, including sugars and apparently some of the materials from which proteins are built up…. But before the origin of life they must have accumulated till the primitive oceans reached the consistency of hot dilute soup…. The first living or half-living things were probably large molecules synthesized under the influence of the sun’s radiation, and only capable of reproduction in the particularly favorable medium in which they originated….
In 'The Origin of Life', The Inequality of Man: And Other Essays (1932, 1937), 152.
Science quotes on:  |   (2863)  |  Accumulate (26)  |  Act (272)  |  Ammonia (15)  |  Capable (168)  |  Carbon (65)  |  Carbon Dioxide (22)  |  Compound (113)  |  Consistency (31)  |  Favorable (24)  |  First (1283)  |  Hot (60)  |  Influence (222)  |  Large (394)  |  Life (1795)  |  Light (607)  |  Living (491)  |  Material (353)  |  Medium (12)  |  Mixture (41)  |  Molecule (174)  |  Must (1526)  |  Ocean (202)  |  Organic (158)  |  Origin (239)  |  Origin Of Life (36)  |  Originate (36)  |  Primitive (75)  |  Protein (54)  |  Reach (281)  |  Reproduction (72)  |  Soup (9)  |  Substance (248)  |  Sugar (23)  |  Sun (385)  |  Synthesize (3)  |  Thing (1915)  |  Variety (132)  |  Vast (177)  |  Violet (11)  |  Water (481)

Why Become Extinct? Authors with varying competence have suggested that dinosaurs disappeared because the climate deteriorated (became suddenly or slowly too hot or cold or dry or wet), or that the diet did (with too much food or not enough of such substances as fern oil; from poisons in water or plants or ingested minerals; by bankruptcy of calcium or other necessary elements). Other writers have put the blame on disease, parasites, wars, anatomical or metabolic disorders (slipped vertebral discs, malfunction or imbalance of hormone and endocrine systems, dwindling brain and consequent stupidity, heat sterilization, effects of being warm-blooded in the Mesozoic world), racial old age, evolutionary drift into senescent overspecialization, changes in the pressure or composition of the atmosphere, poison gases, volcanic dust, excessive oxygen from plants, meteorites, comets, gene pool drainage by little mammalian egg-eaters, overkill capacity by predators, fluctuation of gravitational constants, development of psychotic suicidal factors, entropy, cosmic radiation, shift of Earth's rotational poles, floods, continental drift, extraction of the moon from the Pacific Basin, draining of swamp and lake environments, sunspots, God’s will, mountain building, raids by little green hunters in flying saucers, lack of standing room in Noah’s Ark, and palaeoweltschmerz.
'Riddles of the Terrible Lizards', American Scientist (1964) 52, 231.
Science quotes on:  |   (2863)  |  Age (499)  |  Atmosphere (103)  |  Author (167)  |  Become (815)  |  Being (1278)  |  Blame (30)  |  Blood (134)  |  Brain (270)  |  Building (156)  |  Calcium (7)  |  Capacity (100)  |  Change (593)  |  Climate (97)  |  Climate Change (61)  |  Cold (112)  |  Comet (54)  |  Competence (11)  |  Composition (84)  |  Consequent (19)  |  Constant (144)  |  Continental Drift (10)  |  Cosmic (72)  |  Development (422)  |  Diet (54)  |  Dinosaur (26)  |  Disappear (82)  |  Disease (328)  |  Disorder (41)  |  Dry (57)  |  Dust (64)  |  Earth (996)  |  Effect (393)  |  Egg (69)  |  Element (310)  |  Endocrine (2)  |  Enough (340)  |  Entropy (44)  |  Environment (216)  |  Excessive (23)  |  Extinct (21)  |  Extinction (74)  |  Extraction (9)  |  Fern (9)  |  Flood (50)  |  Fluctuation (14)  |  Flying (72)  |  Flying Saucer (3)  |  Food (199)  |  Gene (98)  |  God (757)  |  Green (63)  |  Heat (174)  |  Hormone (10)  |  Hot (60)  |  Hunter (24)  |  Lack (119)  |  Lake (32)  |  Little (707)  |  Malfunction (4)  |  Meteorite (9)  |  Mineral (59)  |  Moon (237)  |  Mountain (185)  |  Necessary (363)  |  Noah’s Ark (2)  |  Oil (59)  |  Old (481)  |  Old Age (33)  |  Other (2236)  |  Oxygen (66)  |  Parasite (33)  |  Plant (294)  |  Poison (40)  |  Pole (46)  |  Predator (6)  |  Pressure (63)  |  Shift (44)  |  Sterilization (2)  |  Stupidity (39)  |  Substance (248)  |  Suddenly (88)  |  Suicide (23)  |  Sunspot (5)  |  Swamp (7)  |  System (537)  |  UFO (4)  |  Volcano (39)  |  War (225)  |  Warm (69)  |  Warm-Blooded (3)  |  Water (481)  |  Why (491)  |  Will (2355)  |  World (1774)  |  Writer (86)

[From uranium] there are present at least two distinct types of radiation one that is very readily absorbed, which will be termed for convenience the α radiation, and the other of a more penetrative character, which will be termed the β radiation.
Originating the names for these two types of radiation. In 'Uranium Radiation and the Electrical Conduction Produced by It', Philosophical Magazine (1899), 47, 116.
Science quotes on:  |  Absorb (49)  |  Absorption (12)  |  Alpha Ray (3)  |  Character (243)  |  Convenience (50)  |  Distinct (97)  |  Distinction (72)  |  More (2559)  |  Nomenclature (146)  |  Other (2236)  |  Penetration (18)  |  Present (619)  |  Term (349)  |  Two (937)  |  Type (167)  |  Uranium (20)  |  Will (2355)

[Radium emits electrons with a velocity so great that] one gram is enough to lift the whole of the British fleet to the top of Ben Nevis; and I am not quite certain that we could not throw in the French fleet as well.
As quoted in 'Radium', New York Times (22 Feb 1903), 6. The reporter clarifies that this statement is “popular not scientific.” However, it is somewhat prescient, since only two years later (1905) Einstein published his E=mc² formula relating mass and energy. The top of Ben Nevis, the highest mountain in Britain, is 1344-m high. As energy, one gram mass would lift about 68 million tonnes there—over a thousand modern battleships.
Science quotes on:  |  Britain (24)  |  British (41)  |  Certain (550)  |  Electron (93)  |  Emission (17)  |  Emit (15)  |  Energy (344)  |  Enough (340)  |  Fleet (4)  |  France (27)  |  Gram (4)  |  Great (1574)  |  Lift (55)  |  Radium (25)  |  Top (96)  |  Velocity (48)  |  Whole (738)


Carl Sagan Thumbnail In science it often happens that scientists say, 'You know that's a really good argument; my position is mistaken,' and then they would actually change their minds and you never hear that old view from them again. They really do it. It doesn't happen as often as it should, because scientists are human and change is sometimes painful. But it happens every day. I cannot recall the last time something like that happened in politics or religion. (1987) -- Carl Sagan
Quotations by:Albert EinsteinIsaac NewtonLord KelvinCharles DarwinSrinivasa RamanujanCarl SaganFlorence NightingaleThomas EdisonAristotleMarie CurieBenjamin FranklinWinston ChurchillGalileo GalileiSigmund FreudRobert BunsenLouis PasteurTheodore RooseveltAbraham LincolnRonald ReaganLeonardo DaVinciMichio KakuKarl PopperJohann GoetheRobert OppenheimerCharles Kettering  ... (more people)

Quotations about:Atomic  BombBiologyChemistryDeforestationEngineeringAnatomyAstronomyBacteriaBiochemistryBotanyConservationDinosaurEnvironmentFractalGeneticsGeologyHistory of ScienceInventionJupiterKnowledgeLoveMathematicsMeasurementMedicineNatural ResourceOrganic ChemistryPhysicsPhysicianQuantum TheoryResearchScience and ArtTeacherTechnologyUniverseVolcanoVirusWind PowerWomen ScientistsX-RaysYouthZoology  ... (more topics)
Sitewide search within all Today In Science History pages:
Visit our Science and Scientist Quotations index for more Science Quotes from archaeologists, biologists, chemists, geologists, inventors and inventions, mathematicians, physicists, pioneers in medicine, science events and technology.

Names index: | A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z |

Categories index: | 1 | 2 | A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z |

- 100 -
Sophie Germain
Gertrude Elion
Ernest Rutherford
James Chadwick
Marcel Proust
William Harvey
Johann Goethe
John Keynes
Carl Gauss
Paul Feyerabend
- 90 -
Antoine Lavoisier
Lise Meitner
Charles Babbage
Ibn Khaldun
Euclid
Ralph Emerson
Robert Bunsen
Frederick Banting
Andre Ampere
Winston Churchill
- 80 -
John Locke
Bronislaw Malinowski
Bible
Thomas Huxley
Alessandro Volta
Erwin Schrodinger
Wilhelm Roentgen
Louis Pasteur
Bertrand Russell
Jean Lamarck
- 70 -
Samuel Morse
John Wheeler
Nicolaus Copernicus
Robert Fulton
Pierre Laplace
Humphry Davy
Thomas Edison
Lord Kelvin
Theodore Roosevelt
Carolus Linnaeus
- 60 -
Francis Galton
Linus Pauling
Immanuel Kant
Martin Fischer
Robert Boyle
Karl Popper
Paul Dirac
Avicenna
James Watson
William Shakespeare
- 50 -
Stephen Hawking
Niels Bohr
Nikola Tesla
Rachel Carson
Max Planck
Henry Adams
Richard Dawkins
Werner Heisenberg
Alfred Wegener
John Dalton
- 40 -
Pierre Fermat
Edward Wilson
Johannes Kepler
Gustave Eiffel
Giordano Bruno
JJ Thomson
Thomas Kuhn
Leonardo DaVinci
Archimedes
David Hume
- 30 -
Andreas Vesalius
Rudolf Virchow
Richard Feynman
James Hutton
Alexander Fleming
Emile Durkheim
Benjamin Franklin
Robert Oppenheimer
Robert Hooke
Charles Kettering
- 20 -
Carl Sagan
James Maxwell
Marie Curie
Rene Descartes
Francis Crick
Hippocrates
Michael Faraday
Srinivasa Ramanujan
Francis Bacon
Galileo Galilei
- 10 -
Aristotle
John Watson
Rosalind Franklin
Michio Kaku
Isaac Asimov
Charles Darwin
Sigmund Freud
Albert Einstein
Florence Nightingale
Isaac Newton



who invites your feedback
Thank you for sharing.
Today in Science History
Sign up for Newsletter
with quiz, quotes and more.