Celebrating 17 Years on the Web
Find science on or your birthday

Today in Science History - Quickie Quiz
Who said: “Environmental extremists ... wouldn’t let you build a house unless it looked like a bird’s nest.”
more quiz questions >>
Home > Category Index for Science Quotations > Category Index O > Category: Oxygen

Oxygen Quotes (46 quotes)

...the life of the planet began the long, slow process of modulating and regulating the physical conditions of the planet. The oxygen in today's atmosphere is almost entirely the result of photosynthetic living, which had its start with the appearance of blue-green algae among the microorganisms.
In Late Night Thoughts on Listening to Mahler's Ninth Symphony(1984), 74.
Science quotes on:  |  Algae (4)  |  Appearance (69)  |  Atmosphere (54)  |  Blue (23)  |  Condition (102)  |  Green (17)  |  Life (710)  |  Long (37)  |  Microorganism (20)  |  Modulation (3)  |  Photosynthesis (15)  |  Physical (64)  |  Planet (147)  |  Process (162)  |  Regulation (15)  |  Result (198)  |  Slowness (3)  |  Start (48)

La fermentation est … la vie sans air, c’est la vie sans oxygène libre
Fermentation is … life without air, it is life without free oxygen.
In 'Études sur la Bière', Section 6, 'Théorie Physiologique des Fermentation', Revue Scientifique (26 Aug 1876), 2nd Series, 11, No. 9, 214. This is described as “Pasteur’s famous aphorism, ‘Fermentation is life without oxygen’”, in Burton J. Hendrick, 'Some Modern Ideas on Food', McClure’s Magazine (Apr 1910), 34, No. 6, 667.
Science quotes on:  |  Air (129)  |  Fermentation (13)  |  Free (29)  |  Life (710)

As mineralogy constitutes a part of chemistry, it is clear that this arrangement [of minerals] must derive its principles from chemistry. The most perfect mode of arrangement would certainly be to allow bodies to follow each other according to the order of their electro-chemical properties, from the most electro-negative, oxygen, to the most electro-positive, potassium; and to place every compound body according to its most electro-positive ingredient.
An Attempt to Establish a Pure Scientific System of Mineralogy (1814), trans. J. Black, 48.
Science quotes on:  |  Arrangement (39)  |  Chemistry (213)  |  Classification (75)  |  Electrochemistry (5)  |  Ingredient (8)  |  Mineral (34)  |  Mineralogy (15)  |  Potassium (11)

Borel makes the amusing supposition of a million monkeys allowed to play upon the keys of a million typewriters. What is the chance that this wanton activity should reproduce exactly all of the volumes which are contained in the library of the British Museum? It certainly is not a large chance, but it may be roughly calculated, and proves in fact to be considerably larger than the chance that a mixture of oxygen and nitrogen will separate into the two pure constituents. After we have learned to estimate such minute chances, and after we have overcome our fear of numbers which are very much larger or very much smaller than those ordinarily employed, we might proceed to calculate the chance of still more extraordinary occurrences, and even have the boldness to regard the living cell as a result of random arrangement and rearrangement of its atoms. However, we cannot but feel that this would be carrying extrapolation too far. This feeling is due not merely to a recognition of the enormous complexity of living tissue but to the conviction that the whole trend of life, the whole process of building up more and more diverse and complex structures, which we call evolution, is the very opposite of that which we might expect from the laws of chance.
The Anatomy of Science (1926), 158-9.
Science quotes on:  |  Atom (220)  |  Émile Borel (2)  |  Calculate (13)  |  Cell (108)  |  Chance (106)  |  Complexity (70)  |  Conviction (42)  |  Diversity (40)  |  Evolution (434)  |  Extraordinary (24)  |  Extrapolation (3)  |  Library (35)  |  Life (710)  |  Monkey (30)  |  Nitrogen (18)  |  Number (138)  |  Opposite (29)  |  Structure (155)  |  Tissue (20)  |  Typewriter (6)

Built up of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, together with traces of a few other elements, yet of a complexity of structure that has hitherto resisted all attempts at complete analysis, protoplasm is at once the most enduring and the most easily destroyed of substances; its molecules are constantly breaking down to furnish the power for the manifestations of vital phenomena, and yet, through its remarkable property of assimilation, a power possessed by nothing else upon earth, it constantly builds up its substance anew from the surrounding medium.
In History of the Human Body (1919), 1.
Science quotes on:  |  Analysis (114)  |  Assimilation (9)  |  Attempt (67)  |  Carbon (39)  |  Complexity (70)  |  Destruction (72)  |  Enduring (5)  |  Furnish (16)  |  Hydrogen (34)  |  Manifestation (27)  |  Medium (10)  |  Molecule (106)  |  Nitrogen (18)  |  Phenomenon (176)  |  Power (208)  |  Protoplasm (12)  |  Resistance (21)  |  Structure (155)  |  Substance (67)  |  Vital (24)

But when it has been shown by the researches of Pasteur that the septic property of the atmosphere depended not on the oxygen, or any gaseous constituent, but on minute organisms suspended in it, which owed their energy to their vitality, it occurred to me that decomposition in the injured part might be avoided without excluding the air, by applying as a dressing some material capable of destroying the life of the floating particles. Upon this principle I have based a practice.
'On the Antiseptic Principle in the Practice of Surgery', The British Medical Journal (1867), ii, 246.
Science quotes on:  |  Antiseptic (4)  |  Atmosphere (54)  |  Decay (24)  |  Dressing (3)  |  Infection (17)  |  Injury (13)  |  Microorganism (20)  |  Louis Pasteur (44)  |  Treatment (83)

Jöns Jacob Berzelius quote Jons Berzelius quote on chemical symbols - with background of bottles of chemicals
Laboratory chemicals shelf at Miami University (1911) (source)
Chemical signs ought to be letters, for the greater facility of writing, and not to disfigure a printed book ... I shall take therefore for the chemical sign, the initial letter of the Latin name of each elementary substance: but as several have the same initial letter, I shall distinguish them in the following manner:— 1. In the class which I shall call metalloids, I shall employ the initial letter only, even when this letter is common to the metalloid and to some metal. 2. In the class of metals, I shall distinguish those that have the same initials with another metal, or a metalloid, by writing the first two letters of the word. 3. If the first two letters be common to two metals, I shall, in that case, add to the initial letter the first consonant which they have not in common: for example, S = sulphur, Si = silicium, St = stibium (antimony), Sn = stannum (tin), C = carbonicum, Co = colbaltum (colbalt), Cu = cuprum (copper), O = oxygen, Os = osmium, &c.
'Essay on the Cause of Chemical Proportions, and on some circumstances relating to them: together with a short and easy method of expressing them', Annals of Philosophy, 1814, 3,51-2.
Science quotes on:  |  Antimony (4)  |  Book (147)  |  Carbon (39)  |  Case (39)  |  Chemical (59)  |  Cobalt (4)  |  Common (68)  |  Consonant (3)  |  Copper (17)  |  Disfigure (2)  |  Distinguish (23)  |  Element (108)  |  Facility (7)  |  Greater (33)  |  Initial (8)  |  Latin (17)  |  Letter (30)  |  Metal (32)  |  Name (93)  |  Nomenclature (128)  |  Osmium (3)  |  Print (7)  |  Sign (31)  |  Silicon (3)  |  Substance (67)  |  Sulphur (13)  |  Symbol (30)  |  Tin (11)  |  Writing (71)

Did you hear Oxygen cheated on Magnesium? OMg.
Joke found on the Web
Science quotes on:  |  Cheat (5)  |  Joke (35)  |  Magnesium (4)

Each of us has read somewhere that in New Guinea pidgin the word for 'piano' is (I use English spelling) 'this fellow you hit teeth belonging to him he squeal all same pig'. I am inclined to doubt whether this expression is authentic; it looks just like the kind of thing a visitor to the Islands would facetiously invent. But I accept 'cut grass belong head belong me' for 'haircut' as genuine... Such phrases seem very funny to us, and make us feel very superior to the ignorant foreigners who use long winded expressions for simple matters. And then it is our turn to name quite a simple thing, a small uncomplicated molecule consisting of nothing more than a measly 11 carbons, seven hydrogens, one nitrogen and six oxygens. We sharpen our pencils, consult our rule books and at last come up with 3-[(1, 3- dihydro-1, 3-dioxo-2H-isoindol-2-yl) oxy]-3-oxopropanoic acid. A name like that could drive any self-respecting Papuan to piano-playing.
The Chemist's English (1990), 3rd Edition, 57.
Science quotes on:  |  Book (147)  |  Carbon (39)  |  Complication (19)  |  Expression (65)  |  Foreigner (2)  |  Funny (7)  |  Hydrogen (34)  |  Ignorance (163)  |  Invention (262)  |  Matter (221)  |  Molecule (106)  |  Name (93)  |  New Guinea (2)  |  Piano (6)  |  Rule (104)  |  Simple (76)

Four elements, Hydrogen, carbon, oxygen and nitrogen, also provide an example of the astonishing togetherness of our universe. They make up the “organic” molecules that constitute living organisms on a planet, and the nuclei of these same elements interact to generate the light of its star. Then the organisms on the planet come to depend wholly on that starlight, as they must if life is to persist. So it is that all life on the Earth runs on sunlight. [Referring to photosynthesis]
In lecture, 'Life and Mind in the Universe', versions of which George Wald delivered throughout the 1980s. On the website of his son, Elijah Wald, who states it was the last of his father's major lectures.
Science quotes on:  |  Carbon (39)  |  Dependence (29)  |  Element (108)  |  Fusion (9)  |  Hydrogen (34)  |  Interaction (18)  |  Life (710)  |  Molecule (106)  |  Nitrogen (18)  |  Nucleus (27)  |  Organic (37)  |  Organism (98)  |  Photosynthesis (15)  |  Planet (147)  |  Star (212)  |  Starlight (3)  |  Sun (173)  |  Sunlight (14)  |  Universe (433)

Freedom is the oxygen without which science cannot breathe.
From 'Sarnoff Honored by I.R.E.', in Department of Information of the Radio Corporation of America, Radio Age: Research, Manufacturing, Communications, Broadcasting (Apr 1953), 12, No. 2, 32.
Science quotes on:  |  Breathe (19)  |  Freedom (57)  |  Science (1323)

I am inclined to think I shall owe ten years of my life to the good effects of the gas, for I inhale about 20 gallons every day in showing patients how to commence. The gas is just like air, only containing a little more oxygen. Oxygen is what gives life and vitality to the blood. We live on oxygen.
Quoted in The Electrical Review (11 Aug 1893), Vol. 33, 143.
Science quotes on:  |  Air (129)  |  Blood (82)  |  Effect (111)  |  Gas (42)  |  Nitrous Oxide (3)  |  Vitality (7)

I have procured air [oxygen] ... between five and six times as good as the best common air that I have ever met with.
Experiments and Observations on Different Kinds of Air (1775), Vol. 2, 48.
Science quotes on:  |  Air (129)  |  Common (68)

I have witnessed a most remarkable drama here, one which to me as a German was very unexpected, and quite shocking. I saw the famous M. Lavoisier hold a ceremonial auto-da-fe of phlogiston in the Arsenal. His wife... served as the sacrificial priestess, and Stahl appeared as the advocatus diaboli to defend phlogiston. In the end, poor phlogiston was burned on the accusation of oxygen. Do you not think I have made a droll discovery? Everything is literally true. I will not say whether the cause of phlogiston is now irretrievably lost, or what I think about the issue. But I am glad that this spectacle was not presented in my fatherland.
Letter to Chemische Annalen, 1789, 1, 519. Quoted (in English translation) in K. Hufbauer, The Formation of the German Chemical Community (1982), 96.
Science quotes on:  |  Advocate (6)  |  Devil (16)  |  Germany (8)  |  Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier (32)  |  Phlogiston (9)  |  Georg Ernst Stahl (8)

I tell my students, with a feeling of pride that I hope they will share, that the carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen that make up ninety-nine per cent of our living substance were cooked in the deep interiors of earlier generations of dying stars. Gathered up from the ends of the universe, over billions of years, eventually they came to form, in part, the substance of our sun, its planets, and ourselves. Three billion years ago, life arose upon the earth. It is the only life in the solar system.
From speech given at an anti-war teach-in at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, (4 Mar 1969) 'A Generation in Search of a Future', as edited by Ron Dorfman for Chicago Journalism Review, (May 1969).
Science quotes on:  |  Billion (40)  |  Carbon (39)  |  Cooking (7)  |  Death (239)  |  Earth (395)  |  Feeling (74)  |  Formation (51)  |  Generation (88)  |  Interior (13)  |  Life (710)  |  Nitrogen (18)  |  Planet (147)  |  Pride (34)  |  Solar System (40)  |  Star (212)  |  Substance (67)  |  Sun (173)  |  Universe (433)  |  Year (141)

I think it would be a very rash presumption to think that nowhere else in the cosmos has nature repeated the strange experiment which she has performed on earth—that the whole purpose of creation has been staked on this one planet alone. It is probable that dotted through the cosmos there are other suns which provide the energy for life to attendant planets. It is apparent, however, that planets with just the right conditions of temperature, oxygen, water and atmosphere necessary for life are found rarely.
But uncommon as a habitable planet may be, non-terrestrial life exists, has existed and will continue to exist. In the absence of information, we can only surmise that the chance that it surpasses our own is as good as that it falls below our level.
As quoted by H. Gordon Garbedian in 'Ten Great Riddles That Call For Solution by Scientists', New York Times (5 Oct 1930), XX4. Garbedian gave no citation to a source for Shapley’s words. However, part of this quote is very similar to that of Sir Arthur Eddington: “It would indeed be rash to assume that nowhere else has Nature repeated the strange experiment which she has performed on the earth,” from 'Man’s Place in the Universe', Harper’s Magazine (Oct 1928), 157 573.
Science quotes on:  |  Absence (11)  |  Atmosphere (54)  |  Chance (106)  |  Condition (102)  |  Cosmos (31)  |  Creation (191)  |  Earth (395)  |  Energy (157)  |  Existence (207)  |  Experiment (490)  |  Extraterrestrial Life (16)  |  Habitable (3)  |  Information (84)  |  Life (710)  |  Nature (835)  |  Necessity (112)  |  Nowhere (13)  |  Performing (2)  |  Planet (147)  |  Presumption (9)  |  Purpose (111)  |  Rare (26)  |  Rash (3)  |  Repeat (21)  |  Stake (9)  |  Strange (48)  |  Sun (173)  |  Surpass (7)  |  Temperature (39)  |  Uncommon (5)  |  Water (210)

I took a glass retort, capable of containing eight ounces of water, and distilled fuming spirit of nitre according to the usual method. In the beginning the acid passed over red, then it became colourless, and lastly again all red: no sooner did this happen, than I took away the receiver; and tied to the mouth of the retort a bladder emptied of air, which I had moistened in its inside with milk of lime lac calcis, (i.e. lime-water, containing more quicklime than water can dissolve) to prevent its being corroded by the acid. Then I continued the distillation, and the bladder gradually expanded. Here-upon I left every thing to cool, tied up the bladder, and took it off from the mouth of the retort.— I filled a ten-ounce glass with this air and put a small burning candle into it; when immediately the candle burnt with a large flame, of so vivid a light that it dazzled the eyes. I mixed one part of this air with three parts of air, wherein fire would not burn; and this mixture afforded air, in every respect familiar to the common sort. Since this air is absolutely necessary for the generation of fire, and makes about one-third of our common air, I shall henceforth, for shortness sake call it empyreal air, [literally fire-air] the air which is unserviceable for the fiery phenomenon, and which makes abut two-thirds of common air, I shall for the future call foul air [literally corrupted air].
Chemische Abhandlung von der Luft und dem Feuer (1777), Chemical Observations and Experiments on Air and Fire (1780), trans. J. R. Forster, 34-5.
Science quotes on:  |  Acid (17)  |  Air (129)  |  Bladder (2)  |  Burning (17)  |  Candle (16)  |  Corrosion (3)  |  Dazzling (10)  |  Distillation (9)  |  Fire (99)  |  Flame (19)  |  Fume (5)  |  Generation (88)  |  Glass (33)  |  Light (203)  |  Lime (2)  |  Mixture (18)  |  Nitric Acid (2)  |  Receiver (4)  |  Retort (2)  |  Spirit (87)  |  Vivid (13)  |  Water (210)

If a small animal and a lighted candle be placed in a closed flask, so that no air can enter, in a short time the candle will go out, nor will the animal long survive. ... The animal is not suffocated by the smoke of the candle. ... The reason why the animal can live some time after the candle has gone out seems to be that the flame needs a continuous rapid and full supply of nitro-aereal particles. ... For animals, a less aereal spirit is sufficient. ... The movements of the lungs help not a little towards sucking in aereal particles which may remain in said flask and towards transferring them to the blood of the animal.
Remarking (a hundred years before Priestley identified oxygen) that a component of the air is taken into the blood.
Quoted in William Stirling, Some Apostles of Physiology (1902), 45.
Science quotes on:  |  Blood (82)  |  Respiration (12)

If you look at a tree and think of it as a design assignment, it would be like asking you to make something that makes oxygen, sequesters carbon, fixes nitrogen, distills water, provides habitat for hundreds of species, accrues solar energy’s fuel, makes complex sugars and food, changes colors with the seasons, creates microclimates, and self-replicates.
In audio segment, 'William McDonough: Godfather of Green', WNYC, Studio 360 broadcast on NPR radio (18 Mar 2008) and archived on the station website.
Science quotes on:  |  Accrue (2)  |  Assignment (10)  |  Carbon (39)  |  Change (228)  |  Chemical Engineering (4)  |  Color (67)  |  Complex (40)  |  Creation (191)  |  Design (73)  |  Distillation (9)  |  Fix (7)  |  Food (119)  |  Fuel (21)  |  Habitat (7)  |  Nitrogen (18)  |  Season (16)  |  Solar Energy (16)  |  Sugar (13)  |  Tree (121)  |  Water (210)

In every combustion there is disengagement of the matter of fire or of light. A body can burn only in pure air [oxygen]. There is no destruction or decomposition of pure air and the increase in weight of the body burnt is exactly equal to the weight of air destroyed or decomposed. The body burnt changes into an acid by addition of the substance that increases its weight. Pure air is a compound of the matter of fire or of light with a base. In combustion the burning body removes the base, which it attracts more strongly than does the matter of heat, which appears as flame, heat and light.
'Memoire sur la combustion en général', Mémoires de l'Académie des Sciences, 1777, 592. Reprinted in Oeuvres de Lavoisier (1864), Vol. 2, 225-33, trans. M. P. Crosland.
Science quotes on:  |  Acid (17)  |  Burn (21)  |  Combustion (10)  |  Compound (48)  |  Decomposition (12)  |  Experiment (490)  |  Fire (99)  |  Light (203)  |  Matter (221)  |  Reaction (54)  |  Stoichiometry (2)  |  Weight (55)

It is the destiny of wine to be drunk, and it is the destiny of glucose to be oxidized. But it was not oxidized immediately: its drinker kept it in his liver for more than a week, well curled up and tranquil, as a reserve aliment for a sudden effort; an effort that he was forced to make the following Sunday, pursuing a bolting horse. Farewell to the hexagonal structure: in the space of a few instants the skein was unwound and became glucose again, and this was dragged by the bloodstream all the way to a minute muscle fiber in the thigh, and here brutally split into two molecules of lactic acid, the grim harbinger of fatigue: only later, some minutes after, the panting of the lungs was able to supply the oxygen necessary to quietly oxidize the latter. So a new molecule of carbon dioxide returned to the atmosphere, and a parcel of the energy that the sun had handed to the vine-shoot passed from the state of chemical energy to that of mechanical energy, and thereafter settled down in the slothful condition of heat, warming up imperceptibly the air moved by the running and the blood of the runner. 'Such is life,' although rarely is it described in this manner: an inserting itself, a drawing off to its advantage, a parasitizing of the downward course of energy, from its noble solar form to the degraded one of low-temperature heat. In this downward course, which leads to equilibrium and thus death, life draws a bend and nests in it.
The Periodic Table (1975), trans. Raymond Rosenthal (1984), 192-3.
Science quotes on:  |  Air (129)  |  Alcohol (13)  |  Atmosphere (54)  |  Blood (82)  |  Carbon Dioxide (18)  |  Chemical Energy (2)  |  Conservation Of Energy (22)  |  Death (239)  |  Energy (157)  |  Fatigue (3)  |  Heat (81)  |  Lactic Acid (2)  |  Liver (12)  |  Lung (16)  |  Molecule (106)  |  Muscle (31)  |  Oxidation (6)  |  Plant (149)  |  Sun (173)  |  Wine (21)

It will be a general expression of the facts that have been detailed, relating to the changes and transitions by electricity, in common philosophical language, to say, that hydrogen, the alkaline substances, the metals, and certain metallic oxides, are all attracted by negatively electrified metallic surfaces; and contrariwise, that oxygen and acid substances are attracted by positively electrified metallic surfaces and rejected by negatively electrified metallic surfaces; and these attractive and repulsive forces are sufficiently energetic to destroy or suspend the usual operation of elective affinity.
Bakerian Lecture, 'On Some Chemical Agencies of Electricity', Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, 1807, 97, 28-29.
Science quotes on:  |  Acid (17)  |  Alkali (6)  |  Charge (18)  |  Electricity (109)  |  Hydrogen (34)

Judging from our experience upon this planet, such a history, that begins with elementary particles, leads perhaps inevitably toward a strange and moving end: a creature that knows, a science-making animal, that turns back upon the process that generated him and attempts to understand it. Without his like, the universe could be, but not be known, and this is a poor thing. Surely this is a great part of our dignity as men, that we can know, and that through us matter can know itself; that beginning with protons and electrons, out of the womb of time and the vastnesses of space, we can begin to understand; that organized as in us, the hydrogen, the carbon, the nitrogen, the oxygen, those 16-21 elements, the water, the sunlight—all having become us, can begin to understand what they are, and how they came to be.
In 'The Origins of Life', Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (1964), 52, 609-110.
Science quotes on:  |  Animal (253)  |  Beginning (108)  |  Carbon (39)  |  Creature (99)  |  Dignity (13)  |  Electron (54)  |  Element (108)  |  Elementary (23)  |  Experience (209)  |  Generation (88)  |  History (243)  |  Hydrogen (34)  |  Judge (28)  |  Knowledge (1000)  |  Lead (59)  |  Moving (11)  |  Nitrogen (18)  |  Organized (9)  |  Particle (73)  |  Planet (147)  |  Space (118)  |  Strange (48)  |  Sunlight (14)  |  Time (311)  |  Understanding (309)  |  Universe (433)  |  Vastness (6)  |  Water (210)  |  Womb (8)

Man has generally been preoccupied with obtaining as much “production” from the landscape as possible, by developing and maintaining early successional types of ecosystems, usually monocultures. But, of course, man does not live by food and fiber alone; he also needs a balanced CO2-O2 atmosphere, the climactic buffer provided by oceans and masses of vegetation, and clean (that is, unproductive) water for cultural and industrial uses. Many essential life-cycle resources, not to mention recreational and esthetic needs, are best provided man by the less 'productive' landscapes. In other words, the landscape is not just a supply depot but is also the oikos—the home—in which we must live.
'The Strategy of Ecosystem Development. An Understanding of Ecological Succession Provides a Basis for Resolving Man's Conflict with Nature', Science (1969), 164, 266.
Science quotes on:  |  Atmosphere (54)  |  Carbon Dioxide (18)  |  Ecosystem (17)  |  Fibre (5)  |  Food (119)  |  Landscape (20)  |  Man (326)  |  Production (87)  |  Succession (38)

Our atom of carbon enters the leaf, colliding with other innumerable (but here useless) molecules of nitrogen and oxygen. It adheres to a large and complicated molecule that activates it, and simultaneously receives the decisive message from the sky, in the flashing form of a packet of solar light; in an instant, like an insect caught by a spider, it is separated from its oxygen, combined with hydrogen and (one thinks) phosphous, and finally inserted in a chain, whether long or short does not matter, but it is the chain of life. All this happens swiftly, in silence, at the temperature and pressure of the atmosphere, and gratis: dear colleagues, when we learn to do likewise we will be sicut Deus [like God], and we will have also solved the problem of hunger in the world.
Levi Primo and Raymond Rosenthal (trans.), The Periodic Table (1975, 1984), 227-228. In this final section of his book, Levi imagines the life of a carbon atom. He calls this his first “literary dream”. It came to him at Auschwitz.
Science quotes on:  |  Activation (5)  |  Adherence (2)  |  Atmosphere (54)  |  Atom (220)  |  Carbon (39)  |  Catch (15)  |  Chain (33)  |  Collision (9)  |  Combination (58)  |  Complicated (30)  |  Decisive (6)  |  Flash (19)  |  Form (137)  |  Gratis (2)  |  Happening (30)  |  Hunger (8)  |  Hydrogen (34)  |  Innumerable (14)  |  Insect (56)  |  Insertion (2)  |  Instant (7)  |  Large (46)  |  Leaf (38)  |  Learning (173)  |  Life (710)  |  Light (203)  |  Likewise (2)  |  Long (37)  |  Message (19)  |  Molecule (106)  |  Nitrogen (18)  |  Packet (2)  |  Phosphorus (15)  |  Photon (8)  |  Photosynthesis (15)  |  Pressure (24)  |  Problem (278)  |  Receive (25)  |  Separation (29)  |  Short (12)  |  Simultaneity (3)  |  Sky (54)  |  Solar (6)  |  Solution (143)  |  Spider (7)  |  Sun (173)  |  Swiftness (3)  |  Temperature (39)  |  Uselessness (21)  |  World (479)

Our conception of a native protein molecule (showing specific properties) is the following. The molecule consists of one polypeptide chain which continues without interruption throughout the molecule (or, in certain cases, of two or more such chains); this chain is folded into a uniquely defined configuration, in which it is held by hydrogen bonds between the peptide nitrogen and oxygen atoms and also between the free amino and carboxyl groups of the diamino and dicarboxyl amino acid residues.
The characteristic specific properties of native proteins we attribute to their uniquely defined configurations.
The denatured protein molecule we consider to be characterized by the absence of a uniquely defined configuration.
[Co-author with American chemist, Linus Pauling (1901-94)]
'On the Structure of Native, Denatured, and Coagulated Proteins', Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (1936), 22, 442-3.
Science quotes on:  |  Amino Acid (9)  |  Chain (33)  |  Hydrogen Bond (3)  |  Molecule (106)  |  Nitrogen (18)  |  Polypeptide (2)  |  Property (81)  |  Protein (37)

Oxigen [oxygen], as you well know, is my hero as well as my foe, and being not only strong but inexhaustible in strategies and full of tricks, I was obliged to call up all my forces to lay hold of him, and make the subtle Being my prisoner.
Letter to Michael Faraday (11 Dec 1860), The Letters of Faraday and Schoenbein, 1836-1862 (1899), 340.
Science quotes on:  |  Being (38)  |  Foe (3)  |  Hold (35)  |  Inexhaustible (8)  |  Obligation (9)  |  Prisoner (3)  |  Strategy (7)  |  Strength (49)  |  Subtle (16)  |  Trick (13)

Scientific development depends in part on a process of non-incremental or revolutionary change. Some revolutions are large, like those associated with the names of Copernicus, Newton, or Darwin, but most are much smaller, like the discovery of oxygen or the planet Uranus. The usual prelude to changes of this sort is, I believed, the awareness of anomaly, of an occurrence or set of occurrences that does not fit existing ways of ordering phenomena. The changes that result therefore require 'putting on a different kind of thinking-cap', one that renders the anomalous lawlike but that, in the process, also transforms the order exhibited by some other phenomena, previously unproblematic.
The Essential Tension (1977), xvii.
Science quotes on:  |  Anomaly (6)  |  Nicolaus Copernicus (39)  |  Charles Darwin (255)  |  Discovery (531)  |  Law (366)  |  Sir Isaac Newton (235)  |  Occurrence (27)  |  Phenomenon (176)  |  Scientific Revolution (8)  |  Uranus (2)

Since the discovery of oxygen the civilised world has undergone a revolution in manners and customs. The knowledge of the composition of the atmosphere, of the solid crust of the earth, of water, and of their influence upon the life of plants and animals, was linked to that discovery. The successful pursuit of innumerable trades and manufactures, the profitable separation of metals from their ores, also stand in the closest connection therewith.
Familiar Letters on Chemistry (1851), 5.

The absorption of oxygen and the elimination of carbon dioxide in the lungs take place by diffusion alone. There is no trustworthy evidence of any regulation of this process on the part of the organism.
Krogh summing up his results related to a quote from The Mechanism of gas Exchange (1910), 257, as cited by E. Snorrason, 'Krogh, Schack August Steenberg', in Charles Coulton Gillispie (ed.), Dictionary of Scientific Biography (1973), Vol 7, 502.
Science quotes on:  |  Absorption (7)  |  Alone (31)  |  Carbon (39)  |  Diffusion (7)  |  Elimination (15)  |  Evidence (133)  |  Lung (16)  |  Organism (98)  |  Process (162)  |  Regulation (15)  |  Trustworthy (4)

The discovery of an interaction among the four hemes made it obvious that they must be touching, but in science what is obvious is not necessarily true. When the structure of hemoglobin was finally solved, the hemes were found to lie in isolated pockets on the surface of the subunits. Without contact between them how could one of them sense whether the others had combined with oxygen? And how could as heterogeneous a collection of chemical agents as protons, chloride ions, carbon dioxide, and diphosphoglycerate influence the oxygen equilibrium curve in a similar way? It did not seem plausible that any of them could bind directly to the hemes or that all of them could bind at any other common site, although there again it turned out we were wrong. To add to the mystery, none of these agents affected the oxygen equilibrium of myoglobin or of isolated subunits of hemoglobin. We now know that all the cooperative effects disappear if the hemoglobin molecule is merely split in half, but this vital clue was missed. Like Agatha Christie, Nature kept it to the last to make the story more exciting. There are two ways out of an impasse in science: to experiment or to think. By temperament, perhaps, I experimented, whereas Jacques Monod thought.
From essay 'The Second Secret of Life', collected in I Wish I'd Made You Angry Earlier (1998), 263-5.
Science quotes on:  |  Agent (19)  |  Binding (8)  |  Carbon Dioxide (18)  |  Chemical (59)  |  Agatha Christie (5)  |  Clue (12)  |  Collection (35)  |  Combination (58)  |  Common (68)  |  Contact (18)  |  Cooperation (21)  |  Curve (16)  |  Discovery (531)  |  Effect (111)  |  Equilibrium (15)  |  Excitement (31)  |  Experiment (490)  |  Half (20)  |  Hemoglobin (2)  |  Heterogeneity (3)  |  Interaction (18)  |  Ion (6)  |  Isolation (23)  |  Molecule (106)  |  Jacques Monod (21)  |  Mystery (100)  |  Nature (835)  |  Necessity (112)  |  Obvious (42)  |  Plausibility (5)  |  Pocket (5)  |  Proton (10)  |  Science (1323)  |  Sense (160)  |  Site (6)  |  Solution (143)  |  Split (5)  |  Story (39)  |  Structure (155)  |  Surface (58)  |  Temperament (6)  |  Thinking (220)  |  Thought (281)  |  Touch (38)  |  Truth (645)  |  Vital (24)  |  Wrong (84)

The experiments made on the mutual electrical relations of bodies have taught us that they can be divided into two classes: electropositive and electronegative. The simple bodies which belong to the first class, as well as their oxides, always take up positive electricity when they meet simple bodies or oxides belonging to the second class; and the oxides of the first class always behave with the oxides of the other like salifiable bases with acids.
Essai sur le théorie des proportions chimiques (1819). Translated in Henry M. Leicester and Herbert S. Klickstein, A Source Book in Chemistry 1400-1900 (1952), 260.
Science quotes on:  |  Electrochemistry (5)

The farthest Thunder that I heard
Was nearer than the Sky
And rumbles still, though torrid Noons
Have lain their missiles by-
The Lightning that preceded it
Struck no one but myself-
But I would not exchange the Bolt
For all the rest of Life-
Indebtedness to Oxygen
The Happy may repay,
But not the obligation
To Electricity-
It founds the Homes and decks the Days
And every clamor bright
Is but the gleam concomitant
Of that waylaying Light-
The Thought is quiet as a Flake-
A Crash without a Sound,
How Life’s reverberation
Is Explanation found-—
Science quotes on:  |  Bolt (4)  |  Crash (5)  |  Electricity (109)  |  Explanation (147)  |  Light (203)  |  Lightning (25)  |  Missile (5)  |  Poem (83)  |  Reverberation (3)  |  Thunder (6)

The feeling of it to my lungs was not sensibly different from that of common air; but I fancied that my breast felt peculiarly light and easy for some time afterwards. Who can tell but that, in time, this pure air may become a fashionable article in luxury. Hitherto only two mice and myself have had the privilege of breathing it.
Experiments and Observations on Different Kinds of Air (1775), Vol. 2, 102.
Science quotes on:  |  Air (129)  |  Breathing (7)  |  Common (68)  |  Ease (25)  |  Fashion (18)  |  Lung (16)  |  Luxury (9)  |  Mouse (23)  |  Privilege (12)  |  Purity (12)

The oceans are the life support system of this planet, providing us with up to 70 percent of our oxygen, as well as a primary source of protein for billions of people, not to mention the regulation of our climate.
In 'Why Exploring the Ocean is Mankind’s Next Giant Leap', contributed to CNN 'Lightyears Blog' (13 Mar 2012).
Science quotes on:  |  Billion (40)  |  Climate (35)  |  Life (710)  |  Mention (9)  |  Ocean (99)  |  People (111)  |  Planet (147)  |  Primary (18)  |  Protein (37)  |  Provide (25)  |  Regulation (15)  |  Source (56)  |  Support (45)  |  System (100)

The stories of Whitney’s love for experimenting are legion. At one time he received a letter asking if insects could live in a vacuum. Whitney took the letter to one of the members of his staff and asked the man if he cared to run an experiment on the subject. The man replied that there was no point in it, since it was well established that life could not exist without a supply of oxygen. Whitney, who was an inveterate student of wild life, replied that on his farm he had seen turtles bury themselves in mud each fall, and, although the mud was covered with ice and snow for months, emerge again in the spring. The man exclaimed, “Oh, you mean hibernation!” Whitney answered, “I don't know what I mean, but I want to know if bugs can live in a vacuum.”
He proceeded down the hall and broached the subject to another member of the staff. Faced with the same lack of enthusiasm for pursuing the matter further, Whitney tried another illustration. “I've been told that you can freeze a goldfish solidly in a cake of ice, where he certainly can't get much oxygen, and can keep him there for a month or two. But if you thaw him out carefully he seems none the worse for his experience.” The second scientist replied, “Oh, you mean suspended animation.” Whitney once again explained that his interest was not in the terms but in finding an answer to the question.
Finally Whitney returned to his own laboratory and set to work. He placed a fly and a cockroach in a bell jar and removed the air. The two insects promptly keeled over. After approximately two hours, however, when he gradually admitted air again, the cockroach waved its feelers and staggered to its feet. Before long, both the cockroach and the fly were back in action.
'Willis Rodney Whitney', National Academy of Sciences, Biographical Memoirs (1960), 357-358.
Science quotes on:  |  Air (129)  |  Answer (147)  |  Burial (5)  |  Cockroach (5)  |  Emergence (20)  |  Enthusiasm (26)  |  Experiment (490)  |  Fall (60)  |  Fly (48)  |  Freeze (4)  |  Hibernation (2)  |  Ice (24)  |  Illustration (22)  |  Insect (56)  |  Interest (129)  |  Laboratory (109)  |  Legion (2)  |  Letter (30)  |  Life (710)  |  Love (115)  |  Mud (14)  |  Pursuit (46)  |  Question (245)  |  Removal (10)  |  Snow (10)  |  Spring (33)  |  Term (64)  |  Thaw (2)  |  Turtle (7)  |  Vacuum (24)  |  Willis R. Whitney (17)

The stupidity of overfishing would have shocked Carson, herself a marine biologist. … Dredgers carve graveyards in seabeds, fertilisers fuel plankton blooms that result in oxygenless dead zones, and climate change threatens much sea life.
In 'Fifty Years On, the Silence of Rachel Carson’s Spring Consumes Us', The Guardian (25 Sep 2012). Griffiths also quotes a professor of marine conservation, Callum Roberts, from his Ocean of Life that “Since the 1950s, when she published her trilogy The Sea, two-thirds of the species we have fished have collapsed, and some species are down 99%.”
Science quotes on:  |  Bloom (5)  |  Rachel Carson (24)  |  Carve (2)  |  Climate Change (50)  |  Fuel (21)  |  Graveyard (3)  |  Overfishing (25)  |  Plankton (2)  |  Result (198)  |  Sea Life (3)  |  Shock (10)  |  Stupidity (18)  |  Threat (21)

There are various causes for the generation of force: a tensed spring, an air current, a falling mass of water, fire burning under a boiler, a metal that dissolves in an acid—one and the same effect can be produced by means of all these various causes. But in the animal body we recognise only one cause as the ultimate cause of all generation of force, and that is the reciprocal interaction exerted on one another by the constituents of the food and the oxygen of the air. The only known and ultimate cause of the vital activity in the animal as well as in the plant is a chemical process.
'Der Lebensprocess im Thiere und die Atmosphare', Annalen der Chemie und Pharmacie (1841), 41, 215-7. Trans. Kenneth L. Caneva, Robert Mo.yer and the Conservation of Energy (1993), 78.
Science quotes on:  |  Acid (17)  |  Activity (68)  |  Air (129)  |  Animal (253)  |  Boiler (4)  |  Cause (184)  |  Chemical (59)  |  Dissolve (9)  |  Effect (111)  |  Fire (99)  |  Food (119)  |  Force (134)  |  Interaction (18)  |  Metal (32)  |  Plant (149)  |  Process (162)  |  Reaction (54)  |  Spring (33)  |  Steam (21)  |  Tension (4)  |  Water (210)  |  Wind (45)

There's antimony, arsenic, aluminium, selenium,
And hydrogen and oxygen and
nitrogen and rhenium,
And nickel, neodymium, neptunium, germanium,
And iron, americium, ruthenium, uranium,
Europium, zirconium, lutetium, vanadium,
And lanthanum and osmium and astatine and radium,
And gold and protactinium and indium and gallium,
And iodine and thorium and thulium and thallium.
There's yttrium, ytterbium, actinium, rubidium,
And boron, gadolinium, niobium, iridium,
And strontium and silicon and silver and samarium,
And bismuth, bromine, lithium, beryllium and barium.
There's holmium and helium and hafnium and erbium,
And phosphorus and francium and fluorine and terbium,
And manganese and mercury, molybdenum, magnesium,
Dysprosium and scandium and cerium and cesium,
And lead, praseodymium and platinum, plutonium,
Palladium, promethium, potassium, polonium,
And tantalum, technetium, titanium, tellurium,
And cadmium and calcium and chromium and curium.
There's sulfur, californium and fermium, berkelium,
And also mendelevium, einsteinium, nobelium,
And argon, krypton, neon, radon, xenon, zinc and rhodium,
And chlorine, cobalt, carbon, copper, tungsten, tin and sodium.
These are the only ones of which the news has come to Harvard,
And there may be many others, but they haven't been discarvard.
[To the tune of I am the Very Model of a Modern Major General.]
Song, 'The Elements' (1959). In Tom Lehrer,Too Many Songs by Tom Lehrer: With Not Enough Drawings by Ronald Searle (1981), 151.
Science quotes on:  |  Aluminium (3)  |  Antimony (4)  |  Argon (2)  |  Arsenic (6)  |  Barium (3)  |  Beryllium (2)  |  Bismuth (6)  |  Boron (4)  |  Bromine (3)  |  Calcium (4)  |  Carbon (39)  |  Chlorine (11)  |  Chromium (2)  |  Cobalt (4)  |  Copper (17)  |  Element (108)  |  Erbium (2)  |  Fluorine (4)  |  Francium (2)  |  Gold (47)  |  Helium (7)  |  Hydrogen (34)  |  Iodine (7)  |  Iridium (3)  |  Iron (52)  |  Lanthanum (2)  |  Lead (59)  |  Lithium (3)  |  Magnesium (4)  |  Manganese (2)  |  Mercury (39)  |  Neon (4)  |  Nickel (2)  |  Nitrogen (18)  |  Osmium (3)  |  Palladium (2)  |  Phosphorus (15)  |  Platinum (6)  |  Plutonium (2)  |  Polonium (5)  |  Potassium (11)  |  Radium (18)  |  Rhodium (2)  |  Selenium (2)  |  Silicon (3)  |  Silver (23)  |  Sodium (9)  |  Song (11)  |  Strontium (2)  |  Tantalum (2)  |  Thorium (4)  |  Tin (11)  |  Titanium (2)  |  Tungsten (2)  |  Uranium (16)  |  Xenon (4)  |  Yttrium (3)  |  Zinc (3)  |  Zirconium (2)

This pure species of air [oxygen] has the property of combining with the blood and … this combination constitutes its red colour.
From 'Expériences sur la respiration des animaux, et sur les changemens qui arrivent à l’air en passant par leur poumon', Histoire de l’Académie Royale des Sciences for 1777 (1780) as translated by Thomas Henry in 'Experiments on the Respiration of Animals on the Changes effected on the Air passing through their Lungs', Essays, on the Effects Produced by Various Processes on Atmospheric Air, etc. (1783), 13-14. Also in John F. Fulton, Selected Readings in the History of Physiology (1930), 125.
Science quotes on:  |  Air (129)  |  Blood (82)  |  Color (67)  |  Combine (8)  |  Constitute (11)  |  Hemoglobin (2)  |  Produce (33)  |  Property (81)  |  Pure (38)  |  Red (22)

This theory [the oxygen theory] is not as I have heard it described, that of the French chemists, it is mine (elle est la mienne); it is a property which I claim from my contemporaries and from posterity.
Memoires de Chimie (1805), Vol. 2, 87, trans. M. P. Crosland.
Science quotes on:  |  Attribution (4)  |  Biography (222)  |  Posterity (14)  |  Theory (504)

When carbon (C), Oxygen (o) and hydrogen (H) atoms bond in a certain way to form sugar, the resulting compound has a sweet taste. The sweetness resides neither in the C, nor in the O, nor in the H; it resides in the pattern that emerges from their interaction. It is an emergent property. Moreover, strictly speaking, is not a property of the chemical bonds. It is a sensory experience that arises when the sugar molecules interact with the chemistry of our taste buds, which in turns causes a set of neurons to fire in a certain way. The experience of sweetness emerges from that neural activity.
In The Hidden Connections (2002), 116-117.
Science quotes on:  |  Activity (68)  |  Carbon (39)  |  Chemical Bond (5)  |  Chemistry (213)  |  Compound (48)  |  Emergence (20)  |  Experience (209)  |  Hydrogen (34)  |  Interaction (18)  |  Molecule (106)  |  Neuron (8)  |  Pattern (41)  |  Reside (6)  |  Result (198)  |  Sense (160)  |  Sugar (13)  |  Sweetness (6)  |  Taste (29)

When Oxygen and Potassium went on a date, it went OK.
Joke found on the Web
Science quotes on:  |  Date (8)  |  Joke (35)  |  Potassium (11)

You can’t see oxygen being generated by trees, carbon dioxide being taken up by trees, but we get that. We’re beginning to understand the importance of forests. But the ocean has its forests, too. They just happen to be very small. They’re very small in size but they’re very large in numbers.
In interview with Pierce Nahigyan, 'Dr. Sylvia Earle: “We’re Literally Destroying The Systems That Keep Us Alive”', Huffington Post (6 Jan 2016).
Science quotes on:  |  Carbon Dioxide (18)  |  Ecology (44)  |  Forest (75)  |  Importance (165)  |  Large (46)  |  Number (138)  |  Ocean (99)  |  Size (34)  |  Small (63)  |  Tree (121)  |  Understand (71)

[On Oxygen, Chlorine, Iodine, Fluorine:] The most important division of ponderable substances seems to be that which represents their electrical energies or their respective inherent states. When the poles of a voltaic apparatus are introduced into a mixture of the simple substances, it is found that four of them go to the positive, while the rest evince their state by passing to the negative pole. As this division coincides with one resulting from a consideration of their most important properties, it is that which I shall adopt as the first.
From 5th Lecture in 1816, in Bence Jones, The Life and Letters of Faraday (1870), Vol. 1, 217-218.
Science quotes on:  |  Adopt (4)  |  Apparatus (25)  |  Chlorine (11)  |  Division (22)  |  Electrical (7)  |  Fluorine (4)  |  Importance (165)  |  Introduce (22)  |  Iodine (7)  |  Negative (17)  |  Ponderable (3)  |  Positive (18)  |  Property (81)  |  Represent (12)  |  Substance (67)

[When combustion occurs,] one body, at least, is oxygenated, and another restored, at the same time, to its combustible state... This view of combustion may serve to show how nature is always the same, and maintains her equilibrium by preserving the same quantities of air and water on the surface of our globe: for as fast as these are consumed in the various processes of combustion, equal quantities are formed, and rise regenerated like the Phoenix from her ashes.
Fulhame believed 'that water was the only source of oxygen, which oxygenates combustible bodies' and that 'the hydrogen of water is the only substance that restores bodies to their combustible state.'
An Essay on Combustion with a View to a New Art of Dyeing and Painting (1794), 179-180. In Marilyn Bailey Ogilvie and Joy Dorothy Harvey, The Biographical Dictionary of Women in Science (2000), 478.
Science quotes on:  |  Combustion (10)  |  Conservation Of Matter (7)  |  Equilibrium (15)  |  Hydrogen (34)  |  Oxidation (6)  |  Redox Reaction (2)  |  Reduction (32)

Carl Sagan Thumbnail In science it often happens that scientists say, 'You know that's a really good argument; my position is mistaken,' and then they would actually change their minds and you never hear that old view from them again. They really do it. It doesn't happen as often as it should, because scientists are human and change is sometimes painful. But it happens every day. I cannot recall the last time something like that happened in politics or religion. (1987) -- Carl Sagan
Quotations by:Albert EinsteinIsaac NewtonLord KelvinCharles DarwinSrinivasa RamanujanCarl SaganFlorence NightingaleThomas EdisonAristotleMarie CurieBenjamin FranklinWinston ChurchillGalileo GalileiSigmund FreudRobert BunsenLouis PasteurTheodore RooseveltAbraham LincolnRonald ReaganLeonardo DaVinciMichio KakuKarl PopperJohann GoetheRobert OppenheimerCharles Kettering  ... (more people)

Quotations about:Atomic  BombBiologyChemistryDeforestationEngineeringAnatomyAstronomyBacteriaBiochemistryBotanyConservationDinosaurEnvironmentFractalGeneticsGeologyHistory of ScienceInventionJupiterKnowledgeLoveMathematicsMeasurementMedicineNatural ResourceOrganic ChemistryPhysicsPhysicianQuantum TheoryResearchScience and ArtTeacherTechnologyUniverseVolcanoVirusWind PowerWomen ScientistsX-RaysYouthZoology  ... (more topics)
Sitewide search within all Today In Science History pages:
Custom Quotations Search - custom search within only our quotations pages:
Visit our Science and Scientist Quotations index for more Science Quotes from archaeologists, biologists, chemists, geologists, inventors and inventions, mathematicians, physicists, pioneers in medicine, science events and technology.

Names index: | A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z |

Categories index: | 1 | 2 | A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z |

who invites your feedback

- 100 -
Sophie Germain
Gertrude Elion
Ernest Rutherford
James Chadwick
Marcel Proust
William Harvey
Johann Goethe
John Keynes
Carl Gauss
Paul Feyerabend
- 90 -
Antoine Lavoisier
Lise Meitner
Charles Babbage
Ibn Khaldun
Ralph Emerson
Robert Bunsen
Frederick Banting
Andre Ampere
Winston Churchill
- 80 -
John Locke
Bronislaw Malinowski
Thomas Huxley
Alessandro Volta
Erwin Schrodinger
Wilhelm Roentgen
Louis Pasteur
Bertrand Russell
Jean Lamarck
- 70 -
Samuel Morse
John Wheeler
Nicolaus Copernicus
Robert Fulton
Pierre Laplace
Humphry Davy
Thomas Edison
Lord Kelvin
Theodore Roosevelt
Carolus Linnaeus
- 60 -
Francis Galton
Linus Pauling
Immanuel Kant
Martin Fischer
Robert Boyle
Karl Popper
Paul Dirac
James Watson
William Shakespeare
- 50 -
Stephen Hawking
Niels Bohr
Nikola Tesla
Rachel Carson
Max Planck
Henry Adams
Richard Dawkins
Werner Heisenberg
Alfred Wegener
John Dalton
- 40 -
Pierre Fermat
Edward Wilson
Johannes Kepler
Gustave Eiffel
Giordano Bruno
JJ Thomson
Thomas Kuhn
Leonardo DaVinci
David Hume
- 30 -
Andreas Vesalius
Rudolf Virchow
Richard Feynman
James Hutton
Alexander Fleming
Emile Durkheim
Benjamin Franklin
Robert Oppenheimer
Robert Hooke
Charles Kettering
- 20 -
Carl Sagan
James Maxwell
Marie Curie
Rene Descartes
Francis Crick
Michael Faraday
Srinivasa Ramanujan
Francis Bacon
Galileo Galilei
- 10 -
John Watson
Rosalind Franklin
Michio Kaku
Isaac Asimov
Charles Darwin
Sigmund Freud
Albert Einstein
Florence Nightingale
Isaac Newton

Thank you for sharing.
Today in Science History
Sign up for Newsletter
with quiz, quotes and more.