Celebrating 19 Years on the Web
TODAY IN SCIENCE HISTORY ®
Find science on or your birthday

Today in Science History - Quickie Quiz
Who said: “God does not care about our mathematical difficulties. He integrates empirically.”
more quiz questions >>
Home > Category Index for Science Quotations > Category Index L > Category: Layer

Layer Quotes (40 quotes)

A scientist strives to understand the work of Nature. But with our insufficient talents as scientists, we do not hit upon the truth all at once. We must content ourselves with tracking it down, enveloped in considerable darkness, which leads us to make new mistakes and errors. By diligent examination, we may at length little by little peel off the thickest layers, but we seldom get the core quite free, so that finally we have to be satisfied with a little incomplete knowledge.
Lecture to the Royal Swedish Academy of Science, 23 May 1764. Quoted in J. A. Schufle 'Torbern Bergman, Earth Scientist', Chymia, 1967, 12, 78.
Science quotes on:  |  All (4108)  |  Considerable (75)  |  Core (18)  |  Darkness (68)  |  Diligent (19)  |  Do (1908)  |  Down (456)  |  Enquiry (87)  |  Error (321)  |  Examination (98)  |  Free (232)  |  Incomplete (30)  |  Knowledge (1529)  |  Lead (384)  |  Little (707)  |  Mistake (169)  |  Must (1526)  |  Nature (1926)  |  New (1216)  |  Ourselves (245)  |  Scientist (820)  |  Seldom (65)  |  Talent (94)  |  Truth (1057)  |  Understand (606)  |  Work (1351)

An evolutionary perspective of our place in the history of the earth reminds us that Homo sapiens sapiens has occupied the planet for the tiniest fraction of that planet's four and a half thousand million years of existence. In many ways we are a biological accident, the product of countless propitious circumstances. As we peer back through the fossil record, through layer upon layer of long-extinct species, many of which thrived far longer than the human species is ever likely to do, we are reminded of our mortality as a species. There is no law that declares the human animal to be different, as seen in this broad biological perspective, from any other animal. There is no law that declares the human species to be immortal.
Co-author with American science writer Roger Amos Lewin (1946), Origins: What New Discoveries Reveal about the Emergence of our Species and its Possible Future (1977), 256.
Science quotes on:  |   (2863)  |  Accident (88)  |  Animal (617)  |  Back (390)  |  Biological (137)  |  Circumstance (136)  |  Circumstances (108)  |  Countless (36)  |  Declare (45)  |  Different (577)  |  Do (1908)  |  Earth (996)  |  Evolution (590)  |  Existence (456)  |  Extinct (21)  |  Extinction (74)  |  Fossil (136)  |  Fossil Record (10)  |  History (673)  |  History Of Earth (2)  |  Homo Sapiens (23)  |  Human (1468)  |  Immortal (35)  |  Law (894)  |  Long (790)  |  Occupied (45)  |  Other (2236)  |  Perspective (28)  |  Planet (356)  |  Product (160)  |  Record (154)  |  Species (401)  |  Thousand (331)  |  Through (849)  |  Way (1217)  |  Year (933)

And now, as a germination of planetary dimensions, comes the thinking layer which over its full extent develops and intertwines its fibres, not to confuse and neutralise them but to reinforce them in the living unity of a single tissue.
In Teilhard de Chardin and Bernard Wall (trans.), The Phenomenon of Man (1959, 2008), 244. Originally published in French as Le Phénomene Humain (1955).
Science quotes on:  |  Confuse (19)  |  Develop (268)  |  Dimension (61)  |  Extent (139)  |  Fibre (5)  |  Full (66)  |  Germination (2)  |  Intertwine (4)  |  Living (491)  |  Planetary (29)  |  Reinforce (5)  |  Single (353)  |  Thinking (414)  |  Tissue (45)  |  Unity (78)

Anything at all that can be the object of scientific thought becomes dependent on the axiomatic method, and thereby indirectly on mathematics, as soon as it is ripe for the formation of a theory. By pushing ahead to ever deeper layers of axioms … we become ever more conscious of the unity of our knowledge. In the sign of the axiomatic method, mathematics is summoned to a leading role in science.
Address (11 Sep 1917), 'Axiomatisches Denken' delivered before the Swiss Mathematical Society in Zürich. Translated by Ewald as 'Axiomatic Thought', (1918), in William Bragg Ewald, From Kant to Hilbert (1996), Vol. 2, 1115.
Science quotes on:  |  All (4108)  |  Axiom (63)  |  Become (815)  |  Conscious (45)  |  Deeper (4)  |  Dependent (24)  |  Formation (96)  |  Indirect (18)  |  Knowledge (1529)  |  Leading (17)  |  Mathematics (1328)  |  Method (505)  |  More (2559)  |  Object (422)  |  Ripe (5)  |  Role (86)  |  Science (3879)  |  Scientific (941)  |  Scientific Thought (17)  |  Sign (58)  |  Soon (186)  |  Summon (10)  |  Theory (970)  |  Thought (953)  |  Unity (78)

As they discover, from strata to strata and from layer to layer, deep in the quarries of Montmartre or the schists of the Urals, these creatures whose fossilized remains belong to antediluvian civilizations, it will strike terror into your soul to see many millions of years, many thousands of races forgotten by the feeble memory of mankind and by the indestructible divine tradition, and whose piles of ashes on the surface of our globe form the two feet of soil which gives us our bread and our flowers.
From 'La Peau de Chagrin' (1831). As translated as by Helen Constantine The Wild Ass’s Skin (2012), 19.
Science quotes on:  |  Antediluvian (5)  |  Ash (20)  |  Belong (162)  |  Bread (39)  |  Civilization (204)  |  Creature (233)  |  Deep (233)  |  Discover (553)  |  Divine (112)  |  Feeble (27)  |  Flower (106)  |  Forget (115)  |  Forgotten (53)  |  Form (959)  |  Fossil (136)  |  Globe (47)  |  Indestructible (12)  |  Mankind (339)  |  Memory (134)  |  Million (114)  |  Montmartre (3)  |  Pile (12)  |  Piles (7)  |  Quarry (13)  |  Race (268)  |  Remain (349)  |  Schist (4)  |  See (1081)  |  Soil (86)  |  Soul (226)  |  Strata (35)  |  Stratum (10)  |  Strike (68)  |  Surface (209)  |  Terror (30)  |  Thousand (331)  |  Tradition (69)  |  Two (937)  |  Urals (2)  |  Will (2355)  |  Year (933)

At the planet’s very heart lies a solid rocky core, at least five times larger than Earth, seething with the appalling heat generated by the inexorable contraction of the stupendous mass of material pressing down to its centre. For more than four billion years Jupiter’s immense gravitational power has been squeezing the planet slowly, relentlessly, steadily, converting gravitational energy into heat, raising the temperature of that rocky core to thirty thousand degrees, spawning the heat flow that warms the planet from within. That hot, rocky core is the original protoplanet seed from the solar system’s primeval time, the nucleus around which those awesome layers of hydrogen and helium and ammonia, methane, sulphur compounds and water have wrapped themselves.
Ben Bova
Jupiter
Science quotes on:  |   (2863)  |  Ammonia (15)  |  Appalling (10)  |  Awesome (14)  |  Billion (95)  |  Centre (28)  |  Compound (113)  |  Contraction (15)  |  Convert (22)  |  Core (18)  |  Degree (276)  |  Down (456)  |  Earth (996)  |  Energy (344)  |  Five (16)  |  Flow (83)  |  Generate (16)  |  Gravitation (70)  |  Heart (229)  |  Heat (174)  |  Helium (11)  |  Hot (60)  |  Hydrogen (75)  |  Immense (86)  |  Inexorable (10)  |  Jupiter (26)  |  Large (394)  |  Least (75)  |  Lie (364)  |  Mass (157)  |  Material (353)  |  Methane (7)  |  More (2559)  |  Nucleus (49)  |  Original (58)  |  Planet (356)  |  Power (746)  |  Press (21)  |  Primeval (15)  |  Raise (35)  |  Relentlessly (2)  |  Rocky (3)  |  Seed (93)  |  Seething (3)  |  Slowly (18)  |  Solar System (77)  |  Solar Systems (3)  |  Solid (116)  |  Spawn (2)  |  Squeeze (6)  |  Steadily (6)  |  Stupendous (13)  |  Sulphur (18)  |  System (537)  |  Temperature (79)  |  Themselves (433)  |  Thirty (6)  |  Thousand (331)  |  Time (1877)  |  Warm (69)  |  Water (481)  |  Wrap (7)  |  Year (933)

By looking at the sun at different wavelengths, we can peel off the different layers in the (solar) atmosphere, just like peeling an onion.
Primary Source needed. Can you help?
Science quotes on:  |  Atmosphere (103)  |  Different (577)  |  Looking (189)  |  Onion (9)  |  Peel (5)  |  Solar (8)  |  Sun (385)  |  Wavelength (8)

Egypt has been called the Gift of the Nile. Once every year the river overflows its banks, depositing a layer of rich alluvial soil on the parched ground. Then it recedes and soon the whole countryside, as far as the eye can reach, is covered with Egyptologists.
In 'Cheops, or Khufu', The Decline and Fall of Practically Everybody (1950), 7.
Science quotes on:  |  Alluvial (2)  |  Bank (31)  |  Call (769)  |  Countryside (5)  |  Covered (5)  |  Deposit (12)  |  Egypt (29)  |  Eye (419)  |  Gift (104)  |  Ground (217)  |  Nile (4)  |  Overflow (9)  |  Reach (281)  |  Recede (11)  |  Rich (62)  |  River (119)  |  Soil (86)  |  Soon (186)  |  Whole (738)  |  Year (933)

Fifty years after we undertook to make the first synthetic polarizers we find them the essential layer in digital liquid-crystal. And thirty four years after we undertook to make the first instant camera and film, our kind of photography has become ubiquitous.
Letter to shareholders (1978). In Alan R. Earls and Nasrin Rohani, Polaroid (2005), 21.
Science quotes on:  |  Become (815)  |  Camera (6)  |  Crystal (68)  |  Digital (10)  |  Display (56)  |  Essential (199)  |  Film (10)  |  Find (998)  |  First (1283)  |  Instant (45)  |  Kind (557)  |  Liquid (50)  |  Photography (8)  |  Synthetic (26)  |  Ubiquitous (5)  |  Year (933)

For a billion years the patient earth amassed documents and inscribed them with signs and pictures which lay unnoticed and unused. Today, at last, they are waking up, because man has come to rouse them. Stones have begun to speak, because an ear is there to hear them. Layers become history and, released from the enchanted sleep of eternity, life's motley, never-ending dance rises out of the black depths of the past into the light of the present.
Conversation with the Earth (1954), 4
Science quotes on:  |   (2863)  |  Amass (6)  |  Become (815)  |  Billion (95)  |  Dance (32)  |  Depth (94)  |  Ear (68)  |  Earth (996)  |  Eternity (63)  |  Geology (220)  |  Hear (139)  |  History (673)  |  Last (426)  |  Life (1795)  |  Light (607)  |  Man (2251)  |  Never (1087)  |  Past (337)  |  Patient (199)  |  Picture (143)  |  Present (619)  |  Rise (166)  |  Rock (161)  |  Sleep (76)  |  Speak (232)  |  Stone (162)  |  Today (314)  |  Waking (17)  |  Year (933)

Fractals are patterns which occur on many levels. This concept can be applied to any musical parameter. I make melodic fractals, where the pitches of a theme I dream up are used to determine a melodic shape on several levels, in space and time. I make rhythmic fractals, where a set of durations associated with a motive get stretched and compressed and maybe layered on top of each other. I make loudness fractals, where the characteristic loudness of a sound, its envelope shape, is found on several time scales. I even make fractals with the form of a piece, its instrumentation, density, range, and so on. Here I’ve separated the parameters of music, but in a real piece, all of these things are combined, so you might call it a fractal of fractals.
Interview (1999) on The Discovery Channel. As quoted by Benoit B. Manelbrot and Richard Hudson in The (Mis)Behaviour of Markets: A Fractal View of Risk, Ruin and Reward (2010), 133.
Science quotes on:  |  All (4108)  |  Applied (177)  |  Associated (2)  |  Call (769)  |  Characteristic (148)  |  Combined (3)  |  Compressed (3)  |  Concept (221)  |  Density (25)  |  Determine (144)  |  Dream (208)  |  Duration (10)  |  Envelope (6)  |  Form (959)  |  Fractal (9)  |  Instrumentation (4)  |  Layered (2)  |  Level (67)  |  Loudness (3)  |  Motive (59)  |  Music (129)  |  Musical (10)  |  Occur (150)  |  Other (2236)  |  Parameter (4)  |  Pattern (110)  |  Piece (38)  |  Pitch (17)  |  Range (99)  |  Real (149)  |  Rhythmic (2)  |  Scale (121)  |  Science And Art (184)  |  Separate (143)  |  Set (394)  |  Shape (72)  |  Sound (183)  |  Space (500)  |  Space And Time (36)  |  Stretch (39)  |  Stretched (2)  |  Theme (17)  |  Thing (1915)  |  Time (1877)  |  Time And Space (39)  |  Top (96)

Groves hated the weather, and the weathermen; they represented chaos and the messengers of chaos. Weather violated boundaries, ignored walls and gates, failed to adhere to deadlines, disobeyed orders. Weather caused delays. The weather forecasters had opposed the [atomic bomb] test date for months—it was set within a window of unfavorable conditions: thunderstorms, rain, high winds, inversion layers. Groves had overridden them. … Groves saw it as a matter of insubordination when the weather forecasters refused to forecast good weather for the test.
In Atomic Spaces: Living on the Manhattan Project (1999), 312. For the attitude of Groves toward the weather see his, 'Some Recollections of July 16, 1945', Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists (Jun 1970), 26, No. 6, 27.
Science quotes on:  |  Atomic Bomb (111)  |  Boundary (51)  |  Chaos (91)  |  Condition (356)  |  Delay (20)  |  Disobedience (4)  |  Fail (185)  |  Forecast (13)  |  Gate (32)  |  Good (889)  |  Leslie Richard Groves (13)  |  High (362)  |  Matter (798)  |  Month (88)  |  Order (632)  |  Rain (62)  |  Represent (155)  |  Saw (160)  |  Schedule (5)  |  Set (394)  |  Test (211)  |  Thunderstorm (5)  |  Trinity (9)  |  Wall (67)  |  Weather (44)  |  Wind (128)  |  Window (58)

He [Winston Churchill] is rather like a layer cake. One layer was certainly seventeenth century. The eighteenth century in him is obvious. There was the nineteenth century, and a large slice, of course, of the twentieth century; and another, curious, layer which may possibly have been the twenty-first.
As quoted in Peter Stansky, Churchill: A Profile (1973), 197.
Science quotes on:  |  17th Century (16)  |  18th Century (21)  |  19th Century (33)  |  20th Century (36)  |  21st Century (7)  |  Cake (5)  |  Century (310)  |  Certainly (185)  |  Winston Churchill (43)  |  Course (409)  |  Curious (91)  |  First (1283)  |  Large (394)  |  Obvious (126)  |  Possibly (111)

Immediately after the separation of the formative materials into the two layers of the germ-primule, there appears in the ectoderm a groove, open above, at the bottom of which is a streak of darker tissue.
Science quotes on:  |  Embryo (28)  |  Germ (53)  |  Immediately (114)  |  Material (353)  |  Open (274)  |  Separation (57)  |  Tissue (45)  |  Two (937)

In biology, nothing is clear, everything is too complicated, everything is a mess, and just when you think you understand something, you peel off a layer and find deeper complications beneath. Nature is anything but simple.
The Hot Zone
Science quotes on:  |  Beneath (64)  |  Biology (216)  |  Clear (100)  |  Complicated (115)  |  Complication (29)  |  Deep (233)  |  Everything (476)  |  Find (998)  |  Mess (13)  |  Nature (1926)  |  Nothing (966)  |  Peel (5)  |  Simple (406)  |  Something (719)  |  Think (1086)  |  Understand (606)

In fact, the thickness of the Earth's atmosphere, compared with the size of the Earth, is in about the same ratio as the thickness of a coat of shellac on a schoolroom globe is to the diameter of the globe. That's the air that nurtures us and almost all other life on Earth, that protects us from deadly ultraviolet light from the sun, that through the greenhouse effect brings the surface temperature above the freezing point. (Without the greenhouse effect, the entire Earth would plunge below the freezing point of water and we'd all be dead.) Now that atmosphere, so thin and fragile, is under assault by our technology. We are pumping all kinds of stuff into it. You know about the concern that chlorofluorocarbons are depleting the ozone layer; and that carbon dioxide and methane and other greenhouse gases are producing global warming, a steady trend amidst fluctuations produced by volcanic eruptions and other sources. Who knows what other challenges we are posing to this vulnerable layer of air that we haven't been wise enough to foresee?
In 'Wonder and Skepticism', Skeptical Enquirer (Jan-Feb 1995), 19, No. 1.
Science quotes on:  |   (2863)  |  Air (347)  |  All (4108)  |  Assault (12)  |  Atmosphere (103)  |  Carbon (65)  |  Carbon Dioxide (22)  |  Challenge (85)  |  Concern (228)  |  Deadly (21)  |  Death (388)  |  Diameter (28)  |  Earth (996)  |  Effect (393)  |  Enough (340)  |  Eruption (9)  |  Fact (1210)  |  Fluctuation (14)  |  Foresee (19)  |  Fragile (21)  |  Freezing (16)  |  Freezing Point (3)  |  Global (35)  |  Global Warming (27)  |  Globe (47)  |  Greenhouse Effect (5)  |  Greenhouse Gas (3)  |  Kind (557)  |  Know (1518)  |  Life (1795)  |  Light (607)  |  Methane (7)  |  Nurture (16)  |  Other (2236)  |  Ozone (5)  |  Plunge (11)  |  Point (580)  |  Produced (187)  |  Protect (58)  |  Pump (7)  |  Ratio (39)  |  School (219)  |  Source (93)  |  Steady (44)  |  Stuff (21)  |  Sun (385)  |  Surface (209)  |  Technology (257)  |  Temperature (79)  |  Thickness (5)  |  Thin (16)  |  Through (849)  |  Trend (22)  |  Ultraviolet (2)  |  Volcano (39)  |  Vulnerability (5)  |  Warming (23)  |  Water (481)  |  Wisdom (221)  |  Wise (131)

Increasingly, our leaders must deal with dangers that threaten the entire world, where an understanding of those dangers and the possible solutions depend on a good grasp of science. The ozone layer, the greenhouse effect, acid rain, questions of diet and of heredity--all require scientific literacy. Can Americans choose the proper leaders and support the proper programs if they are scientifically illiterate?
articles.latimes.com/1989-03-31/news/vw-543_1_scientific-literacy
Science quotes on:  |  Acid (83)  |  Acid Rain (2)  |  All (4108)  |  Choose (112)  |  Danger (115)  |  Deal (188)  |  Depend (228)  |  Diet (54)  |  Effect (393)  |  Good (889)  |  Greenhouse Effect (5)  |  Heredity (60)  |  Illiteracy (7)  |  Illiterate (6)  |  Leader (43)  |  Literacy (10)  |  Must (1526)  |  Ozone (5)  |  Ozone Layer (2)  |  Possible (552)  |  Program (52)  |  Proper (144)  |  Question (621)  |  Rain (62)  |  Require (219)  |  Science (3879)  |  Scientific (941)  |  Solution (267)  |  Solution. (53)  |  Support (147)  |  Threat (30)  |  Threaten (32)  |  Understand (606)  |  Understanding (513)  |  United States (23)  |  World (1774)

Increasingly, our leaders must deal with dangers that threaten the entire world, where an understanding of those dangers and the possible solutions depends on a good grasp of science. The ozone layer, the greenhouse effect, acid rain, questions of diet and heredity. All require scientific literacy. Can Americans choose the proper leaders and support the proper programs if they themselves are scientifically illiterate? The whole premise of democracy is that it is safe to leave important questions to the court of public opinion—but is it safe to leave them to the court of public ignorance?
In Los Angeles Times (31 Mar 1989).
Science quotes on:  |  Acid (83)  |  Acid Rain (2)  |  All (4108)  |  America (127)  |  Choose (112)  |  Court (33)  |  Danger (115)  |  Deal (188)  |  Democracy (33)  |  Depend (228)  |  Dependence (45)  |  Diet (54)  |  Effect (393)  |  Good (889)  |  Grasp (61)  |  Greenhouse Effect (5)  |  Heredity (60)  |  Ignorance (240)  |  Illiteracy (7)  |  Illiterate (6)  |  Importance (286)  |  Leader (43)  |  Literacy (10)  |  Must (1526)  |  Opinion (281)  |  Ozone (5)  |  Ozone Layer (2)  |  Possible (552)  |  Premise (37)  |  Program (52)  |  Proper (144)  |  Public (96)  |  Question (621)  |  Rain (62)  |  Require (219)  |  Requirement (63)  |  Safe (54)  |  Science (3879)  |  Scientific (941)  |  Solution (267)  |  Solution. (53)  |  Support (147)  |  Themselves (433)  |  Threat (30)  |  Threaten (32)  |  Understanding (513)  |  Whole (738)  |  World (1774)

Is evolution a theory, a system or a hypothesis? It is much more: it is a general condition to which all theories, all hypotheses, all systems must bow and which they must satisfy henceforth if they are to be thinkable and true. Evolution is a light illuminating all facts, a curve that all lines must follow. ... The consciousness of each of us is evolution looking at itself and reflecting upon itself....Man is not the center of the universe as once we thought in our simplicity, but something much more wonderful—the arrow pointing the way to the final unification of the world in terms of life. Man alone constitutes the last-born, the freshest, the most complicated, the most subtle of all the successive layers of life. ... The universe has always been in motion and at this moment continues to be in motion. But will it still be in motion tomorrow? ... What makes the world in which we live specifically modern is our discovery in it and around it of evolution. ... Thus in all probability, between our modern earth and the ultimate earth, there stretches an immense period, characterized not by a slowing-down but a speeding up and by the definitive florescence of the forces of evolution along the line of the human shoot.
In The Phenomenon of Man (1975), pp 218, 220, 223, 227, 228, 277.
Science quotes on:  |  All (4108)  |  Alone (311)  |  Arrow (20)  |  Bow (14)  |  Center (33)  |  Characterize (20)  |  Complicated (115)  |  Condition (356)  |  Consciousness (123)  |  Constitute (97)  |  Continue (165)  |  Curve (49)  |  Definitive (3)  |  Discovery (780)  |  Down (456)  |  Earth (996)  |  Evolution (590)  |  Fact (1210)  |  Facts (553)  |  Final (118)  |  Follow (378)  |  Force (487)  |  General (511)  |  Human (1468)  |  Hypothesis (296)  |  Illuminating (12)  |  Immense (86)  |  Last (426)  |  Life (1795)  |  Light (607)  |  Line (91)  |  Live (628)  |  Looking (189)  |  Man (2251)  |  Modern (385)  |  Moment (253)  |  More (2559)  |  Most (1731)  |  Motion (310)  |  Must (1526)  |  Period (198)  |  Pointing (4)  |  Probability (130)  |  Reflecting (3)  |  Satisfy (27)  |  Shoot (19)  |  Simplicity (167)  |  Something (719)  |  Still (613)  |  Subtle (35)  |  Successive (73)  |  System (537)  |  Term (349)  |  Terms (184)  |  Theory (970)  |  Thinkable (5)  |  Thought (953)  |  Tomorrow (60)  |  True (212)  |  Ultimate (144)  |  Unification (11)  |  Universe (857)  |  Way (1217)  |  Will (2355)  |  Wonderful (149)  |  World (1774)

It is obvious that we know with certainty, that the Flütz [layered] and primitive mountains have been produced by a series of precipitations and depositions formed in succession; that they took place from water which covered the globe, existing always more or less generally, and containing the different substances which have been produced from them.
In New Theory of the Formation of Veins (1809), 110-1.
Science quotes on:  |  Certainty (174)  |  Deposition (4)  |  Different (577)  |  Form (959)  |  Formation (96)  |  Know (1518)  |  Knowledge (1529)  |  Layered (2)  |  More (2559)  |  More Or Less (68)  |  Mountain (185)  |  Obvious (126)  |  Precipitation (7)  |  Primitive (75)  |  Produced (187)  |  Series (149)  |  Substance (248)  |  Succession (77)  |  Water (481)

Mr. Chairman, ladies and gentlemen, I am told that someone accused me of saying that if the Ministry of Fuel and Power were boring for coal and they went through a layer of gold nine feet thick they would throw it away because they wouldn't know what to do with it, Sir, I only said four feet thick.
Remark while accepting a presentation upon his retirement from I.C.I. As quoted by Peter Allen in obituary, Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society (Nov 1976), 22, 117.
Science quotes on:  |  Boring (7)  |  Coal (57)  |  Disclaimer (2)  |  Do (1908)  |  Gold (97)  |  Know (1518)  |  Power (746)  |  Speech (61)  |  Through (849)  |  Waste (101)

On the basis of the results recorded in this review, it can be claimed that the average sand grain has taken many hundreds of millions of years to lose 10 per cent. of its weight by abrasion and become subangular. It is a platitude to point to the slowness of geological processes. But much depends on the way things are put. For it can also be said that a sand grain travelling on the bottom of a river loses 10 million molecules each time it rolls over on its side and that representation impresses us with the high rate of this loss. The properties of quartz have led to the concentration of its grains on the continents, where they could now form a layer averaging several hundred metres thick. But to my mind the most astounding numerical estimate that follows from the present evaluations, is that during each and every second of the incredibly long geological past the number of quartz grains on earth has increased by 1,000 million.
'Sand-its Origin, Transportation, Abrasion and Accumulation', The Geological Society of South Africa (1959), Annexure to Volume 62, 31.
Science quotes on:  |  Astounding (9)  |  Average (82)  |  Basis (173)  |  Become (815)  |  Claim (146)  |  Concentration (29)  |  Continent (76)  |  Depend (228)  |  Earth (996)  |  Estimate (57)  |  Evaluation (10)  |  Follow (378)  |  Form (959)  |  Geology (220)  |  Grain (50)  |  High (362)  |  Hundred (229)  |  Long (790)  |  Lose (159)  |  Loss (110)  |  Mind (1338)  |  Molecule (174)  |  Most (1731)  |  Number (699)  |  Numerical (39)  |  Past (337)  |  Point (580)  |  Present (619)  |  Process (423)  |  Quartz (2)  |  Record (154)  |  Representation (53)  |  Result (677)  |  Review (26)  |  River (119)  |  Roll (40)  |  Sand (62)  |  Side (233)  |  Slowness (5)  |  Thing (1915)  |  Time (1877)  |  Travelling (17)  |  Way (1217)  |  Weight (134)  |  Year (933)

One will see a layer of smooth stones, popularly called fluitati [diluvium], and over these another layer of smaller pebbles, thirdly sand, and finally earth, and you will see this repeatedly … up to the summit of the Mountain. This clearly shows that the order has been caused by many floods, not just one.
In De' Corpi Marini che su Monti si Trovano (1721), 57, as translated by Ezio Vaccari.
Science quotes on:  |  Call (769)  |  Cause (541)  |  Earth (996)  |  Flood (50)  |  Mountain (185)  |  Order (632)  |  Pebble (25)  |  Repeat (42)  |  Sand (62)  |  See (1081)  |  Show (346)  |  Smooth (32)  |  Stone (162)  |  Summit (25)  |  Will (2355)

People say to me, “Are you looking for the ultimate laws of physics?” No, I’m not; I’m just looking to find out more about the world and if it turns out there is a simple ultimate law which explains everything, so be it; that would be very nice to discover. If it turns out it’s like an onion with millions of layers, and we’re just sick and tired of looking at the layers, then that’s the way it is …
From Interview in BBC TV program Horizon (1981). As quoted in The Pleasure of Finding Things Out: The Best Short Works of Richard P. Feynman 1983, (1999), 23.
Science quotes on:  |   (2863)  |  Discover (553)  |  Everything (476)  |  Explain (322)  |  Explanation (234)  |  Find (998)  |  Find Out (21)  |  Law (894)  |  Looking (189)  |  Million (114)  |  More (2559)  |  Onion (9)  |  People (1005)  |  Physic (517)  |  Physics (533)  |  Say (984)  |  Sick (81)  |  Simple (406)  |  Turn (447)  |  Ultimate (144)  |  Way (1217)  |  World (1774)

The book of Nature is the book of Fate. She turns the gigantic pages,—leaf after leaf,—never re-turning one. One leaf she lays down, a floor of granite; then a thousand ages, and a bed of slate; a thousand ages, and a measure of coal; a thousand ages, and a layer of marl and mud: vegetable forms appear; her first misshapen animals, zoophyte, trilobium, fish; then, saurians,—rude forms, in which she has only blocked her future statue, concealing under these unwieldy monsters the fine type of her coming king. The face of the planet cools and dries, the races meliorate, and man is born. But when a race has lived its term, it comes no more again.
From 'Fate', collected in The Complete Works of Ralph Waldo Emerson, Volume 6: The Conduct of Life (1860), 15. This paragraph is the prose version of his poem, 'Song of Nature'.
Science quotes on:  |  Age (499)  |  Animal (617)  |  Appearance (140)  |  Bed (23)  |  Birth (147)  |  Block (12)  |  Book (392)  |  Book Of Fate (2)  |  Book Of Nature (12)  |  Coal (57)  |  Coming (114)  |  Concealing (2)  |  Cool (13)  |  Down (456)  |  Dry (57)  |  Evolution (590)  |  Face (212)  |  Fate (72)  |  Fine (33)  |  First (1283)  |  Fish (120)  |  Floor (20)  |  Form (959)  |  Future (429)  |  Gigantic (40)  |  Granite (7)  |  King (35)  |  Leaf (66)  |  Life (1795)  |  Man (2251)  |  Measure (232)  |  Monster (31)  |  More (2559)  |  Mud (26)  |  Nature (1926)  |  Never (1087)  |  Page (30)  |  Planet (356)  |  Race (268)  |  Returning (2)  |  Rude (6)  |  Saurian (2)  |  Slate (6)  |  Statue (16)  |  Term (349)  |  Thousand (331)  |  Trilobite (6)  |  Turn (447)  |  Type (167)  |  Unwieldy (2)  |  Vegetable (46)  |  Zoophyte (4)

The development of the Vertebrate proceeds from an axis upward, in two layers, which coalesce at the edges, and also downward, in two layers, which likewise coalesce at the edges. Thus two main tubes are formed, one above the other. During the formation of these, the embryo separates into strata, so that the two main tubes are composed of subordinate tubes which enclose each other as fundamental organs, and are capable of developing into all the organs.
As translated and quoted in Ernst Haeckel and E. Ray Lankester (trans.) as epigraph for Chap. 10, The History of Creation (1886), Vol. 1, 244. Alternate translation: “Vertebrate development consists in the formation, in the median plane, of four leaflets two of which are above the axis and two below. During this evolution the germ subdivides in layers, and this has the effect of dividing the primordial tubes into secondary masses. The latter, included in the other masses, are the fundamental organs with the faculty of forming all the other organs.” in François Jacob, The Logic of Life (1993), 121-122.
Science quotes on:  |  All (4108)  |  Capable (168)  |  Coalesce (5)  |  Development (422)  |  Edge (47)  |  Embryo (28)  |  Form (959)  |  Formation (96)  |  Fundamental (250)  |  Organ (115)  |  Other (2236)  |  Proceed (129)  |  Separate (143)  |  Strata (35)  |  Two (937)  |  Upward (43)  |  Vertebrate (20)

The distinguishing of the strata, or layers, in the embryonic membrane was a turning-point in the study of the history of evolution, and placed later researches in their proper light. A division of the (disc-shaped) embryo into an animal and a plastic part first takes place. In the lower part (the plastic or vegetative layer) are a serous and a vascular layer, each of peculiar organization. In the upper part also (the animal or serous germ-layer) two layers are clearly distinguishable, a flesh-layer and a skin-layer. (1828)
Quoted in Ernst Heinrich Philipp August Haeckel, The Evolution of Man (1897), Vol 1, 185.
Science quotes on:  |  Animal (617)  |  Division (65)  |  Embryo (28)  |  Evolution (590)  |  First (1283)  |  Germ (53)  |  History (673)  |  Light (607)  |  Membrane (21)  |  Organization (114)  |  Peculiar (113)  |  Plastic (28)  |  Point (580)  |  Proper (144)  |  Skin (47)  |  Strata (35)  |  Study (653)  |  Two (937)

The Earth Speaks, clearly, distinctly, and, in many of the realms of Nature, loudly, to William Jennings Bryan, but he fails to hear a single sound. The earth speaks from the remotest periods in its wonderful life history in the Archaeozoic Age, when it reveals only a few tissues of its primitive plants. Fifty million years ago it begins to speak as “the waters bring forth abundantly the moving creatures that hath life.” In successive eons of time the various kinds of animals leave their remains in the rocks which compose the deeper layers of the earth, and when the rocks are laid bare by wind, frost, and storm we find wondrous lines of ascent invariably following the principles of creative evolution, whereby the simpler and more lowly forms always precede the higher and more specialized forms.
The earth speaks not of a succession of distinct creations but of a continuous ascent, in which, as the millions of years roll by, increasing perfection of structure and beauty of form are found; out of the water-breathing fish arises the air-breathing amphibian; out of the land-living amphibian arises the land-living, air-breathing reptile, these two kinds of creeping things resembling each other closely. The earth speaks loudly and clearly of the ascent of the bird from one kind of reptile and of the mammal from another kind of reptile.
This is not perhaps the way Bryan would have made the animals, but this is the way God made them!
The Earth Speaks to Bryan (1925), 5-6. Osborn wrote this book in response to the Scopes Monkey Trial, where William Jennings Bryan spoke against the theory of evolution. They had previously been engaged in the controversy about the theory for several years. The title refers to a Biblical verse from the Book of Job (12:8), “Speak to the earth and it shall teach thee.”
Science quotes on:  |  Age (499)  |  Air (347)  |  Amphibian (6)  |  Animal (617)  |  Arise (158)  |  Bare (33)  |  Beauty (299)  |  Begin (260)  |  Bird (149)  |  Breath (59)  |  Breathing (23)  |  William Jennings Bryan (20)  |  Continuous (82)  |  Creation (327)  |  Creative (137)  |  Creature (233)  |  Distinct (97)  |  Earth (996)  |  Eon (11)  |  Erosion (19)  |  Evolution (590)  |  Fail (185)  |  Failure (161)  |  Find (998)  |  Fish (120)  |  Form (959)  |  Fossil (136)  |  Frost (14)  |  God (757)  |  Hear (139)  |  History (673)  |  Invariably (35)  |  Kind (557)  |  Land (115)  |  Life (1795)  |  Living (491)  |  Mammal (37)  |  Million (114)  |  More (2559)  |  Nature (1926)  |  Other (2236)  |  Perfection (129)  |  Period (198)  |  Plant (294)  |  Primitive (75)  |  Principle (507)  |  Realm (85)  |  Remain (349)  |  Remains (9)  |  Reptile (29)  |  Reveal (148)  |  Rock (161)  |  Roll (40)  |  Single (353)  |  Sound (183)  |  Speak (232)  |  Speaking (119)  |  Storm (51)  |  Structure (344)  |  Succession (77)  |  Successive (73)  |  Thing (1915)  |  Time (1877)  |  Tissue (45)  |  Two (937)  |  Various (200)  |  Water (481)  |  Way (1217)  |  Wind (128)  |  Wonderful (149)  |  Wondrous (21)  |  Year (933)

The empirical basis of objective science has nothing “absolute” about it. Science does not rest upon solid bedrock. The bold structure of its theories rises, as it were, above a swamp. It is like a building erected on piles. The piles are driven down from above into the swamp, but not down to any natural or “given” base; and when we cease our attempts to drive our piles into a deeper layer, it is not because we have reached firm ground. We simply stop when we are satisfied that they are firm enough to carry the structure, at least for the time being.
The Logic of Scientific Discovery: Logik Der Forschung (1959, 2002), 94.
Science quotes on:  |  Absolute (145)  |  Attempt (251)  |  Base (117)  |  Basis (173)  |  Being (1278)  |  Bold (22)  |  Building (156)  |  Carry (127)  |  Cease (79)  |  Down (456)  |  Empirical (54)  |  Enough (340)  |  Firm (47)  |  Ground (217)  |  Natural (796)  |  Nothing (966)  |  Objective (91)  |  Piles (7)  |  Reach (281)  |  Rest (280)  |  Rise (166)  |  Science (3879)  |  Solid (116)  |  Structure (344)  |  Swamp (7)  |  Theory (970)  |  Time (1877)

The first attribute that characterizes the greater man from the moron is his thicker layer of inhibition."
Science quotes on:  |  Attribute (61)  |  First (1283)  |  Greater (288)  |  Inhibition (13)  |  Man (2251)  |  Moron (2)

The overwhelming astonishment, the queerest structure we know about so far in the whole universe, the greatest of all cosmological scientific puzzles, confounding all our efforts to comprehend it, is the earth. We are only now beginning to appreciate how strange and splendid it is, how it catches the breath, the loveliest object afloat around the sun, enclosed in its own blue bubble of atmosphere, manufacturing and breathing its own oxygen, fixing its own nitrogen from the air into its own soil, generating its own weather at the surface of its rain forests, constructing its own carapace from living parts: chalk cliffs, coral reefs, old fossils from earlier forms of life now covered by layers of new life meshed together around the globe, Troy upon Troy.
In Late Night Thoughts on Listening to Mahler’s Ninth Symphony (1984), 22-23.
Science quotes on:  |  Afloat (4)  |  Air (347)  |  All (4108)  |  Appreciate (63)  |  Astonish (37)  |  Astonishment (30)  |  Atmosphere (103)  |  Beginning (305)  |  Blue (56)  |  Breath (59)  |  Breathe (45)  |  Breathing (23)  |  Bubble (22)  |  Catch (31)  |  Chalk (8)  |  Cliff (19)  |  Comprehend (40)  |  Confound (21)  |  Confounding (8)  |  Construct (124)  |  Coral Reef (12)  |  Cosmological (11)  |  Cosmos (63)  |  Cover (37)  |  Early (185)  |  Earth (996)  |  Effort (227)  |  Enclose (2)  |  Fix (25)  |  Forest (150)  |  Form (959)  |  Fossil (136)  |  Generate (16)  |  Geology (220)  |  Globe (47)  |  Greatest (328)  |  Know (1518)  |  Life (1795)  |  Living (491)  |  Lovely (10)  |  Manufacturing (27)  |  Mesh (3)  |  Meteorology (33)  |  New (1216)  |  Nitrogen (26)  |  Object (422)  |  Old (481)  |  Overwhelm (5)  |  Overwhelming (30)  |  Oxygen (66)  |  Part (222)  |  Puzzle (44)  |  Queer (9)  |  Rain (62)  |  Rain Forest (29)  |  Scientific (941)  |  Soil (86)  |  Splendid (23)  |  Strange (157)  |  Structure (344)  |  Sun (385)  |  Surface (209)  |  Together (387)  |  Troy (3)  |  Universe (857)  |  Weather (44)  |  Whole (738)

The plexus called rectiform [rete mirabile] by anatomists, is the most wonderful of the bodies located in this region. It encircles the gland [the hypophysis] itself and extends far to the rear; for nearly the whole base of the encephalon has this plexus lying beneath it. It is not a simple network but [looks] as if you had taken several fisherman’s nets and superimposed them. It is characteristic of this net of Nature’s, however, that the meshes of one layer are always attached to those of another, and it is impossible to remove anyone of them alone; for, one after another, the rest follow the one you are removing, because they are all attached to one another successively.
Galen
On the Usefulness of the Parts of the Body, Book IX, 4. Trans. Margaret Tallmadge May (1968), Vol. 1, 430-1.
Science quotes on:  |   (2863)  |  All (4108)  |  Alone (311)  |  Anatomist (23)  |  Anatomy (69)  |  Attach (56)  |  Attached (36)  |  Base (117)  |  Beneath (64)  |  Call (769)  |  Characteristic (148)  |  Extend (128)  |  Fisherman (7)  |  Follow (378)  |  Gland (14)  |  Impossible (251)  |  Look (582)  |  Lying (55)  |  Most (1731)  |  Nature (1926)  |  Nearly (137)  |  Network (21)  |  Remove (45)  |  Rest (280)  |  Simple (406)  |  Whole (738)  |  Wonderful (149)

The scientific tradition is distinguished from the pre-scientific tradition by having two layers. Like the latter, it passes on its theories; but it also passes on a critical attitude towards them.
Conjectures and Refutations: the Growth of Scientific Knowledge (2002), 66.
Science quotes on:  |  Attitude (82)  |  Critical (66)  |  Criticism (78)  |  Distinguish (160)  |  Distinguished (83)  |  Pre-Scientific (5)  |  Science (3879)  |  Scientific (941)  |  Tradition (69)  |  Two (937)

The wintry clouds drop spangles on the mountains. If the thing occurred once in a century historians would chronicle and poets would sing of the event; but Nature, prodigal of beauty, rains down her hexagonal ice-stars year by year, forming layers yards in thickness. The summer sun thaws and partially consolidates the mass. Each winter's fall is covered by that of the ensuing one, and thus the snow layer of each year has to sustain an annually augmented weight. It is more and more compacted by the pressure, and ends by being converted into the ice of a true glacier, which stretches its frozen tongue far down beyond the limits of perpetual snow. The glaciers move, and through valleys they move like rivers.
The Glaciers of the Alps & Mountaineering in 1861 (1911), 247.
Science quotes on:  |   (2863)  |  Annual (5)  |  Augment (12)  |  Augmentation (4)  |  Beauty (299)  |  Being (1278)  |  Beyond (308)  |  Century (310)  |  Chronicle (6)  |  Cloud (104)  |  Compact (13)  |  Consolidation (4)  |  Conversion (17)  |  Cover (37)  |  Down (456)  |  Drop (76)  |  End (590)  |  Ensuing (3)  |  Event (216)  |  Fall (230)  |  Forming (42)  |  Freezing (16)  |  Glacier (17)  |  Hexagon (4)  |  Historian (54)  |  Ice (54)  |  Limit (280)  |  Mass (157)  |  More (2559)  |  Mountain (185)  |  Move (216)  |  Nature (1926)  |  Occurrence (53)  |  Partially (8)  |  Perpetual (57)  |  Perpetuity (9)  |  Poet (83)  |  Pressure (63)  |  Prodigal (2)  |  Rain (62)  |  River (119)  |  Snow (37)  |  Song (37)  |  Spangle (2)  |  Star (427)  |  Stars (304)  |  Stretch (39)  |  Summer (54)  |  Sun (385)  |  Sustain (46)  |  Thaw (2)  |  Thickness (5)  |  Thing (1915)  |  Through (849)  |  Tongue (43)  |  Truth (1057)  |  Valley (32)  |  Weight (134)  |  Winter (44)  |  Yard (7)  |  Year (933)

The [Moon] surface is fine and powdery. I can kick it up loosely with my toe. It does adhere in fine layers like powdered charcoal to the sole and sides of my boots. I only go in a small fraction of an inch, maybe an eighth of an inch, but I can see the footprints of my boots and the treads in the fine sandy particles.
[First report, immediately after stepping on to the Moon and saying “That's one small step for (a) man; one giant leap for mankind.”]
NASA web site. Also in David Michael Harland, The First Men on the Moon: the Story of Apollo 11 (2007), 461.
Science quotes on:  |   (2863)  |  Adhesion (6)  |  Boot (4)  |  Charcoal (10)  |  Fine (33)  |  First (1283)  |  Footprint (15)  |  Giant (67)  |  Immediately (114)  |  Kick (10)  |  Leap (53)  |  Man (2251)  |  Mankind (339)  |  Moon (237)  |  Particle (194)  |  Powder (9)  |  See (1081)  |  Side (233)  |  Small (477)  |  Sole (49)  |  Step (231)  |  Surface (209)  |  Tread (17)

We are peeling an onion layer by layer, each layer uncovering in a sense another universe, unexpected, complicated, and— as we understand more—strangely beautiful.
With co-author A. H. Rosenfeld in 'An Explanatory Statement on Elementary Particle Physics,' American Scientist, June 1960.
Science quotes on:  |  Beautiful (258)  |  Complicated (115)  |  More (2559)  |  Onion (9)  |  Sense (770)  |  Understand (606)  |  Unexpected (52)  |  Universe (857)

When the fossil bones of animals belonging to civilisations before the Flood are turned up in bed after bed and layer upon layer of the quarries of Montmartre or among the schists of the Ural range, the soul receives with dismay a glimpse of millions of peoples forgotten by feeble human memory and unrecognised by permanent divine tradition, peoples whose ashes cover our globe with two feet of earth that yields bread to us and flowers.
From 'La Peau de Chagrin' (1831). As translated by Ellen Marriage in The Wild Ass’s Skin (1906), 21.
Science quotes on:  |  Animal (617)  |  Belonging (37)  |  Bone (95)  |  Bread (39)  |  Civilisation (20)  |  Dismay (5)  |  Divine (112)  |  Earth (996)  |  Feeble (27)  |  Flood (50)  |  Flower (106)  |  Forget (115)  |  Forgotten (53)  |  Fossil (136)  |  Glimpse (13)  |  Human (1468)  |  Memory (134)  |  Million (114)  |  Montmartre (3)  |  People (1005)  |  Permanent (64)  |  Quarry (13)  |  Range (99)  |  Receive (114)  |  Schist (4)  |  Soul (226)  |  Tradition (69)  |  Turn (447)  |  Two (937)  |  Yield (81)

You see layers as you look down. You see clouds towering up. You see their shadows on the sunlit plains, and you see a ship’s wake in the Indian Ocean and brush fires in Africa and a lightning storm walking its way across Australia. You see the reds and the pinks of the Australian desert, and it’s just like a stereoscopic view of all nature, except you’re a hundred ninety miles up.
…...
Science quotes on:  |   (2863)  |  Across (32)  |  Africa (35)  |  All (4108)  |  Australia (8)  |  Australian (2)  |  Brush (5)  |  Cloud (104)  |  Desert (56)  |  Down (456)  |  Fire (189)  |  Hundred (229)  |  Indian (27)  |  Lightning (45)  |  Look (582)  |  Look Down (3)  |  Mile (39)  |  Nature (1926)  |  Ninety (2)  |  Ocean (202)  |  Pink (4)  |  Plain (33)  |  Red (35)  |  See (1081)  |  Shadow (72)  |  Ship (62)  |  Storm (51)  |  Sunlit (2)  |  Tower (42)  |  Towering (11)  |  View (488)  |  Wake (13)  |  Walk (124)  |  Way (1217)

[We are] a fragile species, still new to the earth, … here only a few moments as evolutionary time is measured, … in real danger at the moment of leaving behind only a thin layer of of our fossils, radioactive at that.
The Fragile Species (1992, 1996), 25.
Science quotes on:  |  Behind (137)  |  Danger (115)  |  Earth (996)  |  Evolution (590)  |  Fossil (136)  |  Fragile (21)  |  Leave (130)  |  Measure (232)  |  Moment (253)  |  New (1216)  |  Radioactive (22)  |  Real (149)  |  Species (401)  |  Still (613)  |  Thin (16)  |  Time (1877)

… the icy layers of the upper atmosphere contain conundrums enough to be worthy of humanity's greatest efforts.
Begrüssungsworte', Fourth conference of the International Commission for Scientific Aeronautics, St. Petersberg, 1904 (1905), 28-35. Quoted in Peter Lynch, The Emergence of Numerical Weather Prediction (2006), 97.
Science quotes on:  |   (2863)  |  Atmosphere (103)  |  Conundrum (3)  |  Effort (227)  |  Enough (340)  |  Greatest (328)  |  Humanity (169)  |  Meteorology (33)  |  Research (664)


Carl Sagan Thumbnail In science it often happens that scientists say, 'You know that's a really good argument; my position is mistaken,' and then they would actually change their minds and you never hear that old view from them again. They really do it. It doesn't happen as often as it should, because scientists are human and change is sometimes painful. But it happens every day. I cannot recall the last time something like that happened in politics or religion. (1987) -- Carl Sagan
Quotations by:Albert EinsteinIsaac NewtonLord KelvinCharles DarwinSrinivasa RamanujanCarl SaganFlorence NightingaleThomas EdisonAristotleMarie CurieBenjamin FranklinWinston ChurchillGalileo GalileiSigmund FreudRobert BunsenLouis PasteurTheodore RooseveltAbraham LincolnRonald ReaganLeonardo DaVinciMichio KakuKarl PopperJohann GoetheRobert OppenheimerCharles Kettering  ... (more people)

Quotations about:Atomic  BombBiologyChemistryDeforestationEngineeringAnatomyAstronomyBacteriaBiochemistryBotanyConservationDinosaurEnvironmentFractalGeneticsGeologyHistory of ScienceInventionJupiterKnowledgeLoveMathematicsMeasurementMedicineNatural ResourceOrganic ChemistryPhysicsPhysicianQuantum TheoryResearchScience and ArtTeacherTechnologyUniverseVolcanoVirusWind PowerWomen ScientistsX-RaysYouthZoology  ... (more topics)
Sitewide search within all Today In Science History pages:
Visit our Science and Scientist Quotations index for more Science Quotes from archaeologists, biologists, chemists, geologists, inventors and inventions, mathematicians, physicists, pioneers in medicine, science events and technology.

Names index: | A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z |

Categories index: | 1 | 2 | A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z |

- 100 -
Sophie Germain
Gertrude Elion
Ernest Rutherford
James Chadwick
Marcel Proust
William Harvey
Johann Goethe
John Keynes
Carl Gauss
Paul Feyerabend
- 90 -
Antoine Lavoisier
Lise Meitner
Charles Babbage
Ibn Khaldun
Euclid
Ralph Emerson
Robert Bunsen
Frederick Banting
Andre Ampere
Winston Churchill
- 80 -
John Locke
Bronislaw Malinowski
Bible
Thomas Huxley
Alessandro Volta
Erwin Schrodinger
Wilhelm Roentgen
Louis Pasteur
Bertrand Russell
Jean Lamarck
- 70 -
Samuel Morse
John Wheeler
Nicolaus Copernicus
Robert Fulton
Pierre Laplace
Humphry Davy
Thomas Edison
Lord Kelvin
Theodore Roosevelt
Carolus Linnaeus
- 60 -
Francis Galton
Linus Pauling
Immanuel Kant
Martin Fischer
Robert Boyle
Karl Popper
Paul Dirac
Avicenna
James Watson
William Shakespeare
- 50 -
Stephen Hawking
Niels Bohr
Nikola Tesla
Rachel Carson
Max Planck
Henry Adams
Richard Dawkins
Werner Heisenberg
Alfred Wegener
John Dalton
- 40 -
Pierre Fermat
Edward Wilson
Johannes Kepler
Gustave Eiffel
Giordano Bruno
JJ Thomson
Thomas Kuhn
Leonardo DaVinci
Archimedes
David Hume
- 30 -
Andreas Vesalius
Rudolf Virchow
Richard Feynman
James Hutton
Alexander Fleming
Emile Durkheim
Benjamin Franklin
Robert Oppenheimer
Robert Hooke
Charles Kettering
- 20 -
Carl Sagan
James Maxwell
Marie Curie
Rene Descartes
Francis Crick
Hippocrates
Michael Faraday
Srinivasa Ramanujan
Francis Bacon
Galileo Galilei
- 10 -
Aristotle
John Watson
Rosalind Franklin
Michio Kaku
Isaac Asimov
Charles Darwin
Sigmund Freud
Albert Einstein
Florence Nightingale
Isaac Newton



who invites your feedback
Thank you for sharing.
Today in Science History
Sign up for Newsletter
with quiz, quotes and more.