Celebrating 18 Years on the Web
TODAY IN SCIENCE HISTORY ®
Find science on or your birthday

Today in Science History - Quickie Quiz
Who said: “I seem to have been only like a boy playing on the seashore, ... finding a smoother pebble or a prettier shell ... whilst the great ocean of truth lay all undiscovered before me.”
more quiz questions >>
Home > Dictionary of Science Quotations > Scientist Names Index E > Albert Einstein Quotes > Religion

Thumbnail of Albert Einstein (source)
Albert Einstein
(14 Mar 1879 - 18 Apr 1955)

German-American physicist who developed the special and general theories of relativity. He was awarded the 1921 Nobel Prize for Physics for his explanation of the photoelectric effect.



Albert Einstein quote “Science without religion is lame; religion without science is blind.”
“Galileo Facing the Roman Inquisition,” by Christiano Banti. (source)

A conflict arises when a religious community insists on the absolute truthfulness of all statements recorded in the Bible. This means an intervention on the part of religion into the sphere of science; this is where the struggle of the Church against the doctrines of Galileo and Darwin belongs. On the other hand, representatives of science have often made an attempt to arrive at fundamental judgments with respect to values and ends on the basis of scientific method, and in this way have set themselves in opposition to religion. These conflicts have all sprung from fatal errors.
— Albert Einstein
…...
Science quotes on:  |  Absolute (70)  |  Arise (35)  |  Arrive (20)  |  Attempt (95)  |  Basis (66)  |  Belong (40)  |  Bible (86)  |  Church (31)  |  Community (73)  |  Conflict (51)  |  Darwin (13)  |  Doctrine (55)  |  End (161)  |  Error (234)  |  Fatal (11)  |  Fundamental (124)  |  Galileo Galilei (105)  |  Insist (14)  |  Intervention (11)  |  Judgment (73)  |  Means (119)  |  Often (81)  |  On The Other Hand (17)  |  Opposition (30)  |  Part (163)  |  Record (59)  |  Religion (214)  |  Religious (45)  |  Representative (9)  |  Respect (61)  |  Science (1741)  |  Scientific Method (156)  |  Set (72)  |  Sphere (44)  |  Spring (52)  |  Statement (57)  |  Struggle (66)  |  Themselves (44)  |  Value (188)

A man who is convinced of the truth of his religion is indeed never tolerant. At the least, he is to feel pity for the adherent of another religion but usually it does not stop there. The faithful adherent of a religion will try first of all to convince those that believe in another religion and usually he goes on to hatred if he is not successful. However, hatred then leads to persecution when the might of the majority is behind it.
— Albert Einstein
…...
Science quotes on:  |  Adherent (6)  |  Behind (32)  |  Belief (421)  |  Convince (17)  |  Convinced (17)  |  Faithful (5)  |  Feel (133)  |  First (214)  |  Hatred (18)  |  Lead (120)  |  Least (50)  |  Majority (33)  |  Persecution (9)  |  Pity (11)  |  Religion (214)  |  Stop (60)  |  Successful (27)  |  Tolerant (3)  |  Truth (764)  |  Try (118)  |  Usually (22)

A person who is religiously enlightened appears to me to be one who has, to the best of his ability, liberated himself from the fetters of his selfish desires and is preoccupied with thoughts, feelings, and aspirations to which he clings because of their superpersonal value. It seems to me that what is important is the force of this superpersonal content and the depth of the conviction concerning its overpowering meaningfulness, regardless of whether any attempt is made to unite this content with a divine Being, for otherwise it would not be possible to count Buddha and Spinoza as religious personalities. Accordingly, a religious person is devout in the sense that he has no doubt of the significance and loftiness of those superpersonal objects and goals which neither require nor are capable of rational foundation. They exist with the same necessity and matter-of-factness as he himself. In this sense religion is the age-old endeavor of mankind to become clearly and completely conscious of these values and goals and constantly to strengthen and extend their effect. If one conceives of religion and science according to these definitions then a conflict between them appears impossible. For science can only ascertain what is, but not what should be, and outside of its domain value judgments of all kinds remain necessary.
— Albert Einstein
…...
Science quotes on:  |  Ability (84)  |  Accord (22)  |  Accordingly (3)  |  Ancient (71)  |  Appear (71)  |  Ascertain (7)  |  Aspiration (21)  |  Attempt (95)  |  Become (130)  |  Best (143)  |  Buddha (4)  |  Capable (31)  |  Clearly (23)  |  Cling (5)  |  Completely (23)  |  Conceive (22)  |  Concern (83)  |  Conflict (51)  |  Conscious (27)  |  Constantly (21)  |  Content (41)  |  Conviction (58)  |  Count (38)  |  Definition (154)  |  Depth (37)  |  Desire (114)  |  Devout (4)  |  Divine (48)  |  Domain (21)  |  Doubt (125)  |  Effect (140)  |  Endeavor (35)  |  Enlightened (5)  |  Exist (105)  |  Extend (27)  |  Feelings (13)  |  Fetter (4)  |  Force (208)  |  Foundation (78)  |  Goal (93)  |  Important (135)  |  Impossible (75)  |  Judgment (73)  |  Kind (111)  |  Liberate (9)  |  Loftiness (3)  |  Mankind (217)  |  Necessary (92)  |  Necessity (125)  |  Object (117)  |  Otherwise (19)  |  Outside (39)  |  Person (126)  |  Personality (42)  |  Possible (112)  |  Rational (44)  |  Regardless (3)  |  Religion (214)  |  Religion And Science (7)  |  Religious (45)  |  Remain (82)  |  Require (38)  |  Same (107)  |  Science (1741)  |  Seem (109)  |  Selfish (3)  |  Sense (258)  |  Significance (64)  |  Spinoza (4)  |  Strengthen (14)  |  Thought (400)  |  Unite (16)  |  Value (188)

All religions, arts and sciences are branches of the same tree. All these aspirations are directed toward ennobling man’s life, lifting it from the sphere of mere physical existence and leading the individual towards freedom.
— Albert Einstein
'Moral Decay', Out of My Later Years (1937, 1995), 9.
Science quotes on:  |  Freedom (85)  |  Science And Art (159)  |  Science And Religion (271)

As regards religion, on the other hand, one is generally agreed that it deals with goals and evaluations and, in general, with the emotional foundation of human thinking and acting, as far as these are not predetermined by the inalterable hereditary disposition of the human species. Religion is concerned with man’s attitude toward nature at large, with the establishing of ideals for the individual and communal life, and with mutual human relationship. These ideals religion attempts to attain by exerting an educational influence on tradition and through the development and promulgation of certain easily accessible thoughts and narratives (epics and myths) which are apt to influence evaluation and action along the lines of the accepted ideals.
— Albert Einstein
…...
Science quotes on:  |  Accept (48)  |  Accessible (12)  |  Act (86)  |  Action (163)  |  Agree (20)  |  Apt (8)  |  Attain (23)  |  Attempt (95)  |  Attitude (51)  |  Certain (88)  |  Communal (7)  |  Concern (83)  |  Deal (27)  |  Development (231)  |  Disposition (14)  |  Easily (20)  |  Educational (6)  |  Emotional (16)  |  Epic (5)  |  Establish (31)  |  Evaluation (5)  |  Exert (11)  |  Far (106)  |  Foundation (78)  |  General (99)  |  Generally (10)  |  Goal (93)  |  Hereditary (7)  |  Human (472)  |  Human Species (6)  |  Ideal (57)  |  Individual (185)  |  Influence (113)  |  Large (96)  |  Life (993)  |  Line (57)  |  Mutual (22)  |  Myth (43)  |  Narrative (6)  |  Nature (1081)  |  On The Other Hand (17)  |  Predetermined (3)  |  Promulgation (3)  |  Regard (60)  |  Religion (214)  |  Think (249)  |  Thought (400)  |  Toward (35)  |  Tradition (43)

Common to all these types is the anthropomorphic character of their conception of God. In general, only individuals of exceptional endowments, and exceptionally high-minded communities, rise to any considerable extent above this level. But there is a third stage of religious experience which belongs to all of them, even though it is rarely found in a pure form: I shall call it cosmic religious feeling. It is very difficult to elucidate this feeling to anyone who is entirely without it, especially as there is no anthropomorphic conception of God corresponding to it.
— Albert Einstein
…...
Science quotes on:  |  Anthropomorphic (2)  |  Anyone (29)  |  Belong (40)  |  Call (76)  |  Character (89)  |  Common (96)  |  Community (73)  |  Conception (67)  |  Considerable (12)  |  Correspond (5)  |  Cosmic (42)  |  Difficult (73)  |  Endowment (7)  |  Entirely (25)  |  Especially (20)  |  Exceptional (7)  |  Exceptionally (3)  |  Experience (288)  |  Extent (34)  |  Feel (133)  |  Find (297)  |  Form (223)  |  General (99)  |  God (474)  |  Individual (185)  |  Level (57)  |  Pure (63)  |  Rarely (14)  |  Religious (45)  |  Rise (64)  |  Stage (43)  |  Third (13)  |  Type (38)

Cosmic religiousness is the strongest and most noble driving force of scientific research.
— Albert Einstein
…...
Science quotes on:  |  Cosmic (42)  |  Drive (44)  |  Force (208)  |  Noble (43)  |  Religiousness (3)  |  Research (530)  |  Scientific (181)  |  Strong (56)

Does there truly exist an insuperable contradiction between religion and science? Can religion be superseded by science? The answers to these questions have, for centuries, given rise to considerable dispute and, indeed, bitter fighting. Yet, in my own mind there can be no doubt that in both cases a dispassionate consideration can only lead to a negative answer. What complicates the solution, however, is the fact that while most people readily agree on what is meant by ‘science,’ they are likely to differ on the meaning of ‘religion.’
— Albert Einstein
…...
Science quotes on:  |  Agree (20)  |  Answer (210)  |  Bitter (13)  |  Both (58)  |  Case (67)  |  Century (103)  |  Complicate (3)  |  Considerable (12)  |  Consideration (67)  |  Contradiction (46)  |  Differ (14)  |  Dispassionate (4)  |  Dispute (16)  |  Doubt (125)  |  Exist (105)  |  Fact (628)  |  Fight (40)  |  Give (145)  |  Insuperable (3)  |  Lead (120)  |  Likely (26)  |  Mean (76)  |  Mind (576)  |  Negative (26)  |  People (316)  |  Question (327)  |  Readily (8)  |  Religion (214)  |  Religion And Science (7)  |  Rise (64)  |  Science (1741)  |  Solution (175)  |  Supersede (3)  |  Truly (22)

Even though the realms of religion and science in themselves are clearly marked off from each other, nevertheless there exist between the two strong reciprocal relationships and dependencies. Though religion may be that which determines the goal, it has, nevertheless, learned from science, in the broadest sense, what means will contribute to the attainment of the goals it has set up. But science can only be created by those who are thoroughly imbued with the aspiration toward truth and understanding. This source of feeling, however, springs from the sphere of religion. To this there also belongs the faith in the possibility that the regulations valid for the world of existence are rational, that is, comprehensible to reason. I cannot conceive of a genuine scientist without that profound faith. The situation may be expressed by an image: science without religion is lame, religion without science is blind.
— Albert Einstein
From paper 'Science, Philosophy and Religion', prepared for initial meeting of the Conference on Science, Philosophy and Religion in Their Relation to the Democratic Way of Life, at the Jewish Theological Seminary of America, New York City (9-11 Sep 1940). Collected in Albert Einstein: In His Own Words (2000), 212.
Science quotes on:  |  Aspiration (21)  |  Blind (35)  |  Comprehensible (4)  |  Existence (265)  |  Faith (135)  |  Feeling (79)  |  Goal (93)  |  Lame (3)  |  Rational (44)  |  Reason (343)  |  Reciprocal (5)  |  Relationship (62)  |  Science And Religion (271)  |  Truth (764)  |  Understanding (322)

How can cosmic religious feeling be communicated from one person to another, if it can give rise to no definite notion of a God and no theology? In my view, it is the most important function of art and science to awaken this feeling and keep it alive in those who are receptive to it.
— Albert Einstein
…...
Science quotes on:  |  Alive (44)  |  Art (217)  |  Awaken (11)  |  Communicate (12)  |  Cosmic (42)  |  Definite (28)  |  Feel (133)  |  Function (100)  |  Give (145)  |  God (474)  |  Important (135)  |  Keep (70)  |  Notion (33)  |  Person (126)  |  Receptive (3)  |  Religious (45)  |  Rise (64)  |  Science (1741)  |  Theology (37)  |  View (131)

I assert that the cosmic religious experience is the strongest and the noblest driving force behind scientific research.
— Albert Einstein
…...
Science quotes on:  |  Assert (15)  |  Behind (32)  |  Cosmic (42)  |  Drive (44)  |  Experience (288)  |  Force (208)  |  Nobl (4)  |  Religious (45)  |  Research (530)  |  Scientific (181)  |  Strong (56)

I can understand your aversion to the use of the term ‘religion’ to describe an emotional and psychological attitude which shows itself most clearly in Spinoza ... I have not found a better expression than ‘religious’ for the trust in the rational nature of reality that is, at least to a certain extent, accessible to human reason.
— Albert Einstein
…...
Science quotes on:  |  Accessible (12)  |  Attitude (51)  |  Aversion (7)  |  Better (146)  |  Certain (88)  |  Clearly (23)  |  Describe (40)  |  Emotional (16)  |  Expression (85)  |  Extent (34)  |  Find (297)  |  Human (472)  |  Least (50)  |  Nature (1081)  |  Psychological (11)  |  Rational (44)  |  Reality (155)  |  Reason (343)  |  Religion (214)  |  Religious (45)  |  Show (64)  |  Spinoza (4)  |  Term (89)  |  Trust (44)  |  Understand (223)

I have found no better expression than ‘religious’ for confidence in the rational nature of reality, insofar as it is accessible to human reason. Whenever this feeling is absent, science degenerates into uninspired empiricism.
— Albert Einstein
…...
Science quotes on:  |  Absent (3)  |  Accessible (12)  |  Better (146)  |  Confidence (33)  |  Degenerate (8)  |  Empiricism (16)  |  Expression (85)  |  Feel (133)  |  Find (297)  |  Human (472)  |  Nature (1081)  |  Rational (44)  |  Reality (155)  |  Reason (343)  |  Religious (45)  |  Science (1741)  |  Uninspired (2)  |  Whenever (9)

In the case of a Christian clergyman, the tragic-comical is found in this: that the Christian religion demands love from the faithful, even love for the enemy. This demand, because it is indeed superhuman, he is unable to fulfill. Thus intolerance and hatred ring through the oily words of the clergyman. The love, which on the Christian side is the basis for the conciliatory attempt towards Judaism is the same as the love of a child for a cake. That means that it contains the hope that the object of the love will be eaten up.
— Albert Einstein
…...
Science quotes on:  |  Attempt (95)  |  Basis (66)  |  Cake (3)  |  Case (67)  |  Child (208)  |  Christian (18)  |  Clergyman (5)  |  Contain (42)  |  Demand (55)  |  Eat (44)  |  Enemy (53)  |  Faithful (5)  |  Find (297)  |  Fulfill (12)  |  Hatred (18)  |  Hope (146)  |  Intolerance (7)  |  Judaism (2)  |  Love (193)  |  Means (119)  |  Object (117)  |  Religion (214)  |  Ring (14)  |  Same (107)  |  Side (42)  |  Superhuman (3)  |  Unable (14)  |  Word (235)

It is difficult even to attach a precise meaning to the term “scientific truth.” So different is the meaning of the word “truth” according to whether we are dealing with a fact of experience, a mathematical proposition or a scientific theory. “Religious truth” conveys nothing clear to me at all.
— Albert Einstein
From 'Scientific Truth' in Essays in Science (1934, 2004), 11.
Science quotes on:  |  Attach (8)  |  Clear (60)  |  Convey (10)  |  Different (132)  |  Difficult (73)  |  Experience (288)  |  Fact (628)  |  Mathematics (597)  |  Meaning (87)  |  Nothing (302)  |  Precise (18)  |  Proposition (47)  |  Religious (45)  |  Science And Religion (271)  |  Scientific (181)  |  Term (89)  |  Theory (585)  |  Truth (764)  |  Word (235)

It is easy to follow in the sacred writings of the Jewish people the development of the religion of fear into the moral religion, which is carried further in the New Testament. The religions of all civilized peoples, especially those of the Orient, are principally moral religions. An important advance in the life of a people is the transformation of the religion of fear into the moral religion.
— Albert Einstein
…...
Science quotes on:  |  Advance (128)  |  Carry (39)  |  Civilized (13)  |  Development (231)  |  Easy (69)  |  Especially (20)  |  Far (106)  |  Fear (124)  |  Follow (79)  |  Important (135)  |  Jewish (9)  |  Life (993)  |  Moral (104)  |  New Testament (3)  |  Orient (3)  |  People (316)  |  Principally (2)  |  Religion (214)  |  Sacred (15)  |  Transformation (48)  |  Writings (2)

It is therefore easy to see why the churches have always fought science and persecuted its devotees. On the other hand, I maintain that the cosmic religious feeling is the strongest and noblest motive for scientific research. Only those who realize the immense efforts and, above all, the devotion without which pioneer work in theoretical science cannot be achieved are able to grasp the strength of the emotion out of which alone such work, remote as it is from the immediate realities of life, can issue. What a deep conviction of the rationality of the universe and what a yearning to understand, were it but a feeble reflection of the mind revealed in this world, Kepler and Newton must have had to enable them to spend years of solitary labor in disentangling the principles of celestial mechanics! Those whose acquaintance with scientific research is derived chiefly from its practical results easily develop a completely false notion of the mentality of the men who, surrounded by a skeptical world, have shown the way to kindred spirits scattered wide through the world and through the centuries. Only one who has devoted his life to similar ends can have a vivid realization of what has inspired these men and given them the strength to remain true to their purpose in spite of countless failures. It is cosmic religious feeling that gives a man such strength. A contemporary has said, not unjustly, that in this materialistic age of ours the serious scientific workers are the only profoundly religious people.
— Albert Einstein
…...
Science quotes on:  |  Achieve (46)  |  Acquaintance (14)  |  Age (146)  |  Alone (75)  |  Celestial Mechanics (3)  |  Century (103)  |  Chiefly (7)  |  Church (31)  |  Completely (23)  |  Contemporary (23)  |  Conviction (58)  |  Cosmic (42)  |  Countless (15)  |  Deep (99)  |  Derive (19)  |  Develop (70)  |  Devote (24)  |  Devotee (3)  |  Devotion (24)  |  Disentangle (3)  |  Easily (20)  |  Easy (69)  |  Effort (106)  |  Emotion (64)  |  Enable (26)  |  End (161)  |  Failure (125)  |  False (80)  |  Feeble (21)  |  Feel (133)  |  Fight (40)  |  Give (145)  |  Grasp (46)  |  Immediate (31)  |  Immense (34)  |  Inspire (41)  |  Issue (38)  |  Kepler (2)  |  Kindred (3)  |  Labor (55)  |  Life (993)  |  Maintain (25)  |  Materialistic (2)  |  Mentality (5)  |  Mind (576)  |  Motive (27)  |  Newton (9)  |  Nobl (4)  |  Notion (33)  |  On The Other Hand (17)  |  Ours (4)  |  People (316)  |  Persecute (4)  |  Pioneer (24)  |  Practical (93)  |  Principle (232)  |  Profoundly (13)  |  Purpose (145)  |  Rationality (11)  |  Reality (155)  |  Realization (35)  |  Realize (59)  |  Reflection (52)  |  Religious (45)  |  Remain (82)  |  Remote (30)  |  Research (530)  |  Result (267)  |  Reveal (38)  |  Say (160)  |  Scatter (5)  |  Science (1741)  |  Scientific (181)  |  See (307)  |  Serious (40)  |  Show (64)  |  Similar (23)  |  Skeptical (7)  |  Solitary (13)  |  Spend (31)  |  Spirit (126)  |  Spite (12)  |  Strength (65)  |  Strong (56)  |  Surround (21)  |  Theoretical Science (2)  |  True (139)  |  Understand (223)  |  Universe (615)  |  Vivid (17)  |  Wide (21)  |  Work (493)  |  Worker (24)  |  World (746)  |  Year (240)  |  Yearn (9)

It is this mythical, or rather this symbolic, content of the religious traditions which is likely to come into conflict with science. This occurs whenever this religious stock of ideas contains dogmatically fixed statements on subjects which be long in the domain of science. Thus, it is of vital importance for the preservation of true religion that such conflicts be avoided when they arise from subjects which, in fact, are not really essential for the pursuance of the religious aims.
— Albert Einstein
…...
Science quotes on:  |  Aim (60)  |  Arise (35)  |  Avoid (36)  |  Conflict (51)  |  Contain (42)  |  Content (41)  |  Domain (21)  |  Essential (92)  |  Fact (628)  |  Fix (15)  |  Idea (457)  |  Importance (186)  |  Likely (26)  |  Long (125)  |  Mythical (3)  |  Occur (32)  |  Preservation (29)  |  Really (62)  |  Religion (214)  |  Religious (45)  |  Science (1741)  |  Statement (57)  |  Stock (5)  |  Subject (133)  |  Symbolic (8)  |  Tradition (43)  |  True (139)  |  Vital (34)  |  Whenever (9)

It was, of course, a lie what you read about my religious convictions, a lie which is being systematically repeated. I do not believe in a personal God and I have never denied this but have expressed it clearly. If something is in me which can be called religious then it is the unbounded admiration for the structure of the world so far as our science can reveal it.
— Albert Einstein
From Letter (24 Mar 1954) in Einstein archives. Quoted by Helen Dukas and Banesh Hoffman, Albert Einstein: The Human Side (1979, 2013), 43. Dukas was Einstein’s personal secretary for 28 years, so she knew his philosophy well.
Science quotes on:  |  Admiration (36)  |  Agnostic (7)  |  Conviction (58)  |  Deny (30)  |  God (474)  |  Lie (99)  |  Personal (53)  |  Reveal (38)  |  Science (1741)  |  Science And Religion (271)  |  Structure (193)  |  Unbounded (3)  |  World (746)

It would not be difficult to come to an agreement as to what we understand by science. Science is the century-old endeavor to bring together by means of systematic thought the perceptible phenomena of this world into as thoroughgoing an association as possible. To put it boldly, it is the attempt at the posterior reconstruction of existence by the process of conceptualization. But when asking myself what religion is I cannot think of the answer so easily. And even after finding an answer which may satisfy me at this particular moment, I still remain convinced that I can never under any circumstances bring together, even to a slight extent, the thoughts of all those who have given this question serious consideration.
— Albert Einstein
…...
Science quotes on:  |  Agreement (30)  |  Answer (210)  |  Ask (117)  |  Association (15)  |  Attempt (95)  |  Boldly (3)  |  Bring (66)  |  Circumstance (54)  |  Consideration (67)  |  Convinced (17)  |  Difficult (73)  |  Easily (20)  |  Endeavor (35)  |  Existence (265)  |  Extent (34)  |  Find (297)  |  Give (145)  |  Means (119)  |  Moment (79)  |  Myself (30)  |  Particular (55)  |  Perceptible (4)  |  Phenomenon (223)  |  Possible (112)  |  Posterior (3)  |  Process (210)  |  Question (327)  |  Reconstruction (13)  |  Religion (214)  |  Remain (82)  |  Satisfy (16)  |  Science (1741)  |  Serious (40)  |  Slight (20)  |  Systematic (25)  |  Think (249)  |  Thought (400)  |  Together (60)  |  Understand (223)  |  World (746)

My religion consists of a humble admiration of the illimitable superior spirit who reveals himself in the slight details we are able to perceive with our frail and feeble mind.
— Albert Einstein
…...
Science quotes on:  |  Admiration (36)  |  Consist (25)  |  Detail (68)  |  Feeble (21)  |  Frail (2)  |  Humble (27)  |  Illimitable (2)  |  Mind (576)  |  Perceive (24)  |  Religion (214)  |  Reveal (38)  |  Slight (20)  |  Spirit (126)  |  Superior (31)

One strength of the communist system of the East is that it has some of the character of a religion and inspires the emotions of a religion.
— Albert Einstein
…...
Science quotes on:  |  Character (89)  |  Communist (6)  |  East (16)  |  Emotion (64)  |  Inspire (41)  |  Religion (214)  |  Strength (65)  |  System (154)

Science not only purifies the religious impulse of the dross of its anthropomorphism but also contributes to a religious spiritualization of our understanding of life.
— Albert Einstein
…...
Science quotes on:  |  Contribute (14)  |  Impulse (29)  |  Life (993)  |  Purify (6)  |  Religious (45)  |  Science (1741)  |  Spiritualization (2)  |  Understand (223)

Albert Einstein quote “Science without religion is lame; religion without science is blind.”
“Galileo Facing the Roman Inquisition,” by Christiano Banti. (source)
Science without religion is lame; religion without science is blind.
— Albert Einstein
In paper 'Science, Philosophy and Religion', prepared for initial meeting of the Conference on Science, Philosophy and Religion in Their Relation to the Democratic Way of Life, at the Jewish Theological Seminary of America, New York City (9-11 Sep 1940). In Ralph Keyes, The Quote Verifier (2006), 51, Keyes compares Einstein's own subsequent quote: “Epistomology without contact with science becomes an empty scheme. Science without epistomology is—insofar as it is thinkable at all—primitive and muddled.” Alice Calaprice, in The Quotable Einstein (1996), 153, compares the earlier quote by Immanuel Kant: “Notion without intuition is empty; intuition without notion is blind.” Calaprice states Einstein made this quote in a written contribution to the Symposium, and gives its date as 1941, the date of publication (?) of the Symposium proceedings. Calaprice cites Einstein Archive 28-523; and Einstein's Ideas and Opinions, 41-49.
Science quotes on:  |  Science And Religion (271)

Scientific research can reduce superstition by encouraging people to think and survey things in terms of cause and effect. Certain it is that a conviction, akin to religious feeling, of the rationality or intelligibility of the world lies behind all scientific work of a higher order.
— Albert Einstein
From 'Scientific Truth' in Essays in Science (1934, 2004), 11.
Science quotes on:  |  Cause And Effect (11)  |  Certain (88)  |  Conviction (58)  |  Encouraging (2)  |  Feeling (79)  |  Higher (28)  |  Order (173)  |  Person (126)  |  Rationality (11)  |  Reduce (32)  |  Religious (45)  |  Research (530)  |  Science And Religion (271)  |  Scientific (181)  |  Superstition (51)  |  Survey (14)  |  Think (249)  |  Work (493)  |  World (746)

The conflict that exists today is no more than an old-style struggle for power, once again presented to mankind in semireligious trappings. The difference is that, this time, the development of atomic power has imbued the struggle with a ghostly character; for both parties know and admit that, should the quarrel deteriorate into actual war, mankind is doomed.
— Albert Einstein
Address he was writing, left unfinished when he died (Apr 1955).
Science quotes on:  |  Atomic Bomb (101)  |  War (149)

The fairest thing we can experience is the mysterious. It is the fundamental emotion which stands at the cradle of true art and true science. He who knows it not and can no longer wonder, no longer feel amazement, is as good as dead, a snuffed-out candle. It was the experience of mystery–even if mixed with fear–that engendered religion. A knowledge of the existence of something we cannot penetrate, of the manifestations of the profoundest reason and the most radiant beauty, which are only accessible to our reason in their most elementary forms–it is this knowledge and this emotion that constitute the truly religious attitude; in this sense, and in this alone, I am a deeply religious man.
— Albert Einstein
The World As I See It (2006), 7.
Science quotes on:  |  Emotion (64)  |  Experience (288)  |  Mysterious (25)  |  Science And Art (159)

The further the spiritual evolution of mankind advances, the more certain it seems to me that the path to genuine religiosity does not lie through the fear of life, and the fear of death, and blind faith, but through striving after rational knowledge.
— Albert Einstein
…...
Science quotes on:  |  Advance (128)  |  Blind (35)  |  Certain (88)  |  Death (277)  |  Evolution (500)  |  Faith (135)  |  Far (106)  |  Fear (124)  |  Genuine (21)  |  Knowledge (1148)  |  Lie (99)  |  Life (993)  |  Mankind (217)  |  Path (66)  |  Rational (44)  |  Religiosity (2)  |  Seem (109)  |  Spiritual (48)  |  Strive (38)

The highest principles for our aspirations and judgments are given to us in the Jewish-Christian religious tradition. It is a very high goal which, with our weak powers, we can reach only very inadequately, but which gives a sure foundation to our aspirations and valuations.
— Albert Einstein
…...
Science quotes on:  |  Aspiration (21)  |  Foundation (78)  |  Give (145)  |  Goal (93)  |  High (99)  |  Judgment (73)  |  Power (286)  |  Principle (232)  |  Reach (89)  |  Religious (45)  |  Tradition (43)  |  Valuation (3)  |  Weak (37)

The individual feels the futility of human desires and aims and the sublimity and marvelous order which reveal themselves both in nature and in the world of thought. Individual existence impresses him as a sort of prison and he wants to experience the universe as a single significant whole. The beginnings of cosmic religious feeling already appear at an early stage of development, e.g., in many of the Psalms of David and in some of the Prophets. Buddhism, as we have learned especially from the wonderful writings of Schopenhauer, contains a much stronger element of this. The religious geniuses of all ages have been distinguished by this kind of religious feeling, which knows no dogma and no God conceived in man’s image; so that there can be no church whose central teachings are based on it. Hence it is precisely among the heretics of every age that we find men who were filled with this highest kind of religious feeling and were in many cases regarded by their contemporaries as atheists, sometimes also as saints. Looked at in this light, men like Democritus, Francis of Assisi, and Spinoza are closely akin to one another.
— Albert Einstein
…...
Science quotes on:  |  Age (146)  |  Aim (60)  |  Akin (3)  |  Already (24)  |  Appear (71)  |  Atheist (13)  |  Base (46)  |  Beginnings (3)  |  Both (58)  |  Case (67)  |  Central (28)  |  Church (31)  |  Closely (9)  |  Conceive (22)  |  Contain (42)  |  Contemporary (23)  |  Cosmic (42)  |  David (6)  |  Democritus of Abdera (16)  |  Desire (114)  |  Development (231)  |  Distinguish (35)  |  Dogma (25)  |  Early (42)  |  Element (137)  |  Especially (20)  |  Existence (265)  |  Experience (288)  |  Feel (133)  |  Fill (41)  |  Find (297)  |  Francis (2)  |  Futility (5)  |  Genius (194)  |  God (474)  |  Heretic (5)  |  High (99)  |  Human (472)  |  Image (43)  |  Impress (11)  |  Individual (185)  |  Kind (111)  |  Know (394)  |  Learn (193)  |  Light (301)  |  Marvelous (14)  |  Nature (1081)  |  Order (173)  |  Precisely (13)  |  Prison (8)  |  Prophet (8)  |  Psalm (3)  |  Regard (60)  |  Religious (45)  |  Reveal (38)  |  Saint (11)  |  Significant (27)  |  Single (88)  |  Sometimes (34)  |  Sort (34)  |  Spinoza (4)  |  Stage (43)  |  Strong (56)  |  Sublimity (4)  |  Teachings (2)  |  Themselves (44)  |  Thought (400)  |  Universe (615)  |  Want (139)  |  Whole (130)  |  Wonderful (41)  |  World (746)  |  Writings (2)

The Jewish scriptures admirably illustrate the development from the religion of fear to moral religion, a development continued in the New Testament. The religions of all civilized peoples, especially the peoples of the Orient, are primarily moral religions. The development from a religion of fear to moral religion is a great step in peoples’ lives. And yet, that primitive religions are based entirely on fear and the religions of civilized peoples purely on morality is a prejudice against which we must be on our guard. The truth is that all religions are a varying blend of both types, with this differentiation: that on the higher levels of social life the religion of morality predominates.
— Albert Einstein
…...
Science quotes on:  |  Admirably (2)  |  Base (46)  |  Blend (8)  |  Both (58)  |  Civilized (13)  |  Continue (45)  |  Development (231)  |  Differentiation (17)  |  Entirely (25)  |  Especially (20)  |  Fear (124)  |  Great (355)  |  Guard (16)  |  High (99)  |  Illustrate (5)  |  Jewish (9)  |  Level (57)  |  Live (230)  |  Moral (104)  |  Morality (35)  |  New Testament (3)  |  Orient (3)  |  People (316)  |  Predominate (2)  |  Prejudice (59)  |  Primarily (10)  |  Primitive (38)  |  Purely (15)  |  Religion (214)  |  Scripture (10)  |  Social Life (2)  |  Step (78)  |  Truth (764)  |  Type (38)  |  Vary (15)

The longing to behold this pre-established harmony [of phenomena and theoretical principles] is the source of the inexhaustible patience and perseverance with which Planck has devoted himself ... The state of mind which enables a man to do work of this kind is akin to that of the religious worshiper or the lover; the daily effort comes from no deliberate intention or program, but straight from the heart.
— Albert Einstein
Address (1918) for Max Planck's 60th birthday, at Physical Society, Berlin, 'Principles of Research' in Essays in Science (1934), 4-5.
Science quotes on:  |  Devotion (24)  |  Effort (106)  |  Harmony (59)  |  Heart (125)  |  Inexhaustible (10)  |  Intention (26)  |  Longing (8)  |  Love (193)  |  Patience (32)  |  Perseverance (15)  |  Phenomenon (223)  |  Max Planck (62)  |  Program (34)  |  Religion (214)  |  Research (530)  |  State Of Mind (4)  |  Theory (585)  |  Work (493)  |  Worship (22)

The main source of the present-day conflicts between the spheres of religion and of science lies in this concept of a personal God.
— Albert Einstein
…...
Science quotes on:  |  Concept (103)  |  Conflict (51)  |  God (474)  |  Lie (99)  |  Main (17)  |  Personal (53)  |  Present-Day (2)  |  Religion (214)  |  Science (1741)  |  Source (75)  |  Sphere (44)

The man who is thoroughly convinced of the universal operation of the law of causation cannot for a moment entertain the idea of a being who interferes in the course of events–provided, of course, that he takes the hypothesis of causality really seriously. He has no use for the religion of fear and equally little for social or moral religion. A God who rewards and punishes is inconceivable to him for the simple reason that a man’s actions are determined by necessity, external and internal, so that in God’s eyes he cannot be responsible, any more than an inanimate object is responsible for the motions it undergoes. Science has therefore been charged with undermining morality, but the charge is unjust. A man’s ethical behavior should be based effectually on sympathy, education, and social tie s and needs; no religious basis is necessary. Man would indeed be in a poor way if he had to be restrained by fear of punishment and hopes of reward after death.
— Albert Einstein
…...
Science quotes on:  |  Action (163)  |  Base (46)  |  Basis (66)  |  Behavior (54)  |  Causality (8)  |  Charge (29)  |  Convinced (17)  |  Course (63)  |  Death (277)  |  Determine (49)  |  Education (286)  |  Entertain (6)  |  Equally (22)  |  Ethical (10)  |  Event (102)  |  External (45)  |  Eye (190)  |  Fear (124)  |  God (474)  |  Hope (146)  |  Hypothesis (231)  |  Idea (457)  |  Inanimate (15)  |  Inconceivable (8)  |  Interfere (10)  |  Internal (20)  |  Law Of Causation (2)  |  Little (150)  |  Moment (79)  |  Moral (104)  |  Morality (35)  |  Motion (135)  |  Necessary (92)  |  Necessity (125)  |  Need (226)  |  Object (117)  |  Of Course (16)  |  Operation (96)  |  Poor (47)  |  Provide (49)  |  Punish (6)  |  Punishment (10)  |  Really (62)  |  Reason (343)  |  Religion (214)  |  Religious (45)  |  Responsible (13)  |  Restrain (5)  |  Reward (41)  |  Science (1741)  |  Seriously (16)  |  Simple (123)  |  Social (95)  |  Sympathy (17)  |  Thoroughly (8)  |  Tie (21)  |  Undergo (12)  |  Undermine (5)  |  Universal (77)  |  Unjust (5)

The moral attitudes of a people that is supported by religion need always aim at preserving and promoting the sanity and vitality of the community and its individuals, since otherwise this community is bound to perish. A people that were to honor falsehood, defamation, fraud, and murder would be unable, indeed, to subsist for very long.
— Albert Einstein
…...
Science quotes on:  |  Aim (60)  |  Attitude (51)  |  Bind (23)  |  Community (73)  |  Defamation (2)  |  Falsehood (19)  |  Fraud (13)  |  Honor (24)  |  Individual (185)  |  Long (125)  |  Moral (104)  |  Murder (12)  |  Need (226)  |  Otherwise (19)  |  People (316)  |  Perish (25)  |  Preserve (43)  |  Promote (16)  |  Religion (214)  |  Sanity (7)  |  Subsist (3)  |  Support (67)  |  Unable (14)  |  Vitality (10)

The most beautiful and deepest experience a man can have is the sense of the mysterious. It is the underlying principle of religion as well as all serious endeavour in art and science. He who never had this experience seems to me, if not dead, then at least blind. To sense that behind anything that can be experienced there is a something that our mind cannot grasp and whose beauty and sublimity reaches us only indirectly and as a feeble reflection, this is religiousness.
— Albert Einstein
…...
Science quotes on:  |  Art (217)  |  Beautiful (108)  |  Beauty (200)  |  Behind (32)  |  Blind (35)  |  Dead (48)  |  Deep (99)  |  Endeavor (35)  |  Experience (288)  |  Feeble (21)  |  Grasp (46)  |  Indirectly (5)  |  Least (50)  |  Mind (576)  |  Mysterious (25)  |  Principle (232)  |  Reach (89)  |  Reflection (52)  |  Religion (214)  |  Religiousness (3)  |  Science (1741)  |  Seem (109)  |  Sense (258)  |  Serious (40)  |  Sublimity (4)  |  Underlying (14)

The most beautiful emotion we can experience is the mystical. It is the power of all true art and science. He to whom this emotion is a stranger, who can no longer wonder and stand rapt in awe, is as good as dead. To know that what is impenetrable to us really exists, manifesting itself as the highest wisdom and the most radiant beauty, which our dull faculties can comprehend only in their most primitive forms — this knowledge, this feeling, is at the center of true religiousness. In this sense, and in this sense only, I belong to the rank of devoutly religious men.
— Albert Einstein
As quoted in Philip Frank, Einstein: His Life and Times (1947), chap. 12, sec. 5 - “Einstein’s Attitude Toward Religion.”
Science quotes on:  |  Awe (26)  |  Beauty (200)  |  Center (31)  |  Comprehension (51)  |  Death (277)  |  Emotion (64)  |  Existence (265)  |  Experience (288)  |  Faculty (36)  |  Feeling (79)  |  Form (223)  |  Impenetrable (5)  |  Knowledge (1148)  |  Mystical (7)  |  Power (286)  |  Primitive (38)  |  Radiant (6)  |  Rapt (5)  |  Religiousness (3)  |  Science And Art (159)  |  Science And Religion (271)  |  Stranger (11)  |  True (139)  |  Wisdom (161)  |  Wonder (152)

There are pessimists who hold that such a state of affairs is necessarily inherent in human nature; it is those who propound such views that are the enemies of true religion, for they imply thereby that religious teachings are utopian ideals and unsuited to afford guidance in human affairs. The study of the social patterns in certain so-called primitive cultures, however, seems to have made it sufficiently evident that such a defeatist view is wholly unwarranted.
— Albert Einstein
…...
Science quotes on:  |  Afford (12)  |  Certain (88)  |  Culture (87)  |  Enemy (53)  |  Evident (16)  |  Guidance (14)  |  Hold (70)  |  Human Affairs (5)  |  Human Nature (56)  |  Ideal (57)  |  Imply (12)  |  Inherent (27)  |  Necessarily (17)  |  Pattern (63)  |  Pessimist (7)  |  Primitive (38)  |  Propound (2)  |  Religion (214)  |  Religious (45)  |  Seem (109)  |  So-Called (18)  |  Social (95)  |  State Of affairs (5)  |  Study (349)  |  Sufficiently (7)  |  Teachings (2)  |  Thereby (5)  |  True (139)  |  Unwarranted (2)  |  Utopian (3)  |  View (131)  |  Wholly (7)

There remains something subtle, intangible and inexplicable. Veneration for this force beyond anything that we can comprehend is my religion.
— Albert Einstein
…...
Science quotes on:  |  Beyond (88)  |  Comprehend (23)  |  Force (208)  |  Inexplicable (5)  |  Intangible (6)  |  Religion (214)  |  Remain (82)  |  Subtle (26)  |  Veneration (2)

Try and penetrate with our limited means the secrets of nature and you will find that, behind all the discernible concatenations, there remains something subtle, intangible and inexplicable. Veneration for this force beyond anything that we can comprehend is my religion. To that extent I am, in point of fact, religious.
— Albert Einstein
…...
Science quotes on:  |  Behind (32)  |  Beyond (88)  |  Comprehend (23)  |  Discernible (3)  |  Extent (34)  |  Fact (628)  |  Find (297)  |  Force (208)  |  Inexplicable (5)  |  Intangible (6)  |  Limit (97)  |  Means (119)  |  Nature (1081)  |  Penetrate (22)  |  Point (88)  |  Religion (214)  |  Religious (45)  |  Remain (82)  |  Secret (104)  |  Subtle (26)  |  Try (118)  |  Veneration (2)

What is the meaning of human life, or of organic life altogether? To answer this question at all implies a religion. Is there any sense then, you ask, in putting it? I answer, the man who regards his own life and that of his fellow creatures as meaningless is not merely unfortunate but almost disqualified for life.
— Albert Einstein
…...
Science quotes on:  |  Altogether (6)  |  Answer (210)  |  Ask (117)  |  Creature (142)  |  Fellow (32)  |  Human Life (27)  |  Imply (12)  |  Life (993)  |  Mean (76)  |  Meaningless (15)  |  Merely (43)  |  Organic Life (2)  |  Question (327)  |  Regard (60)  |  Religion (214)  |  Sense (258)  |  Unfortunate (10)

While it is true that scientific results are entirely independent from religious and moral considerations, those individuals to whom we owe the great creative achievements of science were all of them imbued with the truly religious conviction that this universe of ours is something perfect and susceptible to the rational striving for knowledge. If this conviction had not been a strongly emotional one and if those searching for knowledge had not been inspired by Spinoza's Amor Dei Intellectualis, they would hardly have been capable of that untiring devotion which alone enables man to attain his greatest achievements.
— Albert Einstein
In response to a greeting sent by the Liberal Ministers’ Club of New York City, published in 'Religion and Science: Irreconcilable?' The Christian Register (Jun 1948). Collected in Ideas and Options (1954), 52.
Science quotes on:  |  Enquiry (75)  |  Knowledge (1148)  |  Religion (214)

While religion prescribes brotherly love in the relations among the individuals and groups, the actual spectacle more resembles a battlefield than an orchestra. Everywhere, in economic as well as in political life, the guiding principle is one of ruthless striving for success at the expense of one’s fellow men. This competitive spirit prevails even in school and, destroying all feelings of human fraternity and cooperation, conceives of achievement not as derived from the love for productive and thoughtful work, but as springing from personal ambition and fear of rejection.
— Albert Einstein
…...
Science quotes on:  |  Achievement (132)  |  Actual (35)  |  Ambition (30)  |  Battlefield (5)  |  Brotherly (2)  |  Competitive (7)  |  Conceive (22)  |  Cooperation (29)  |  Derive (19)  |  Destroy (66)  |  Economic (23)  |  Everywhere (17)  |  Expense (11)  |  Fear (124)  |  Feelings (13)  |  Fellow (32)  |  Fraternity (4)  |  Group (55)  |  Guide (51)  |  Human (472)  |  Individual (185)  |  Life (993)  |  Love (193)  |  Personal (53)  |  Political (34)  |  Prescribe (6)  |  Prevail (14)  |  Principle (232)  |  Productive (13)  |  Rejection (25)  |  Relation (98)  |  Religion (214)  |  Resemble (19)  |  Ruthless (5)  |  School (88)  |  Spectacle (12)  |  Spirit (126)  |  Spring (52)  |  Strive (38)  |  Success (215)  |  Thoughtful (10)  |  Work (493)


See also:
  • 14 Mar - short biography, births, deaths and events on date of Einstein's birth.
  • Albert Einstein - My Theory - The Times (1919).
  • Geometry and Experience - Address by Albert Einstein to the Prussian Academy of Sciences (27 Jan 1921).
  • Even Einstein's Little Universe Is Big Enough - New York Times article (2 Feb 1921).
  • Large color picture of Albert Einstein (850 x 1000 px).
  • Albert Einstein - Context of “God … integrates empirically” quote - Medium image (500 x 350 px)
  • Albert Einstein - Context of “Laws of mathematics refer to reality” quote
  • Albert Einstein - Context of “Laws of mathematics refer to reality” quote - with Large image (800 x 600 px).
  • Albert Einstein - Context of “God … integrates empirically” quote - Large image (800 x 600 px)
  • Albert Einstein - context of quote Mathematics…a product of human thought - Medium image (500 x 350 px)
  • Albert Einstein - context of quote Mathematics…a product of human thought - Large image (800 x 600 px)
  • Albert Einstein - context of quote “Politics is more difficult than physics” - Medium image (500 x 350 px)
  • Albert Einstein - context of quote “Politics is more difficult than physics” - Large image (800 x 600 px)
  • Albert Einstein - context of quote “Science without religion is lame; religion without science is blind.” - Medium image (500 x 350 px)
  • Albert Einstein - context of quote “Science without religion is lame; religion without science is blind.” - Large image (800 x 600 px)
  • Albert Einstein - context of quote The Lord God is subtle - Medium image (500 x 350 px)
  • Albert Einstein - context of quote The Lord God is subtle - Large image (800 x 600 px)
  • Albert Einstein - context of quote Imagination is more important than knowledge - Medium image (500 x 350 px)
  • Albert Einstein - context of quote Imagination is more important than knowledge - Large image (800 x 600 px)
  • Albert Einstein - context of quote A theory can be proved by experiment - Medium image (500 x 350 px)
  • Albert Einstein - context of quote A theory can be proved by experiment - Large image (800 x 600 px)
  • Albert Einstein - context of quote Falling in love is not at all the most stupid thing - Medium image (500 x 350 px)
  • Albert Einstein - context of quote Falling in love is not at all the most stupid thing - Large image (800 x 600 px)
  • Albert Einstein - context of quote That is relativity - Medium image (500 x 350 px)
  • Albert Einstein - context of quote That is relativity - Large image (800 x 600 px)
  • Albert Einstein - context of quote “One thing I have learned in a long life” - Medium image (500 x 350 px)
  • Albert Einstein - context of quote One thing I have learned in a long life - Large image (800 x 600 px)
  • Albert Einstein - context of quote “Why is the electron negative?” - Medium image (500 x 350 px)
  • Albert Einstein - context of quote “Why is the electron negative?” - Large image (800 x 600 px)
  • Albert Einstein - context of quote “The formulation of a problem is often far more essential than its solution” - Medium image (500 x 350 px)
  • Albert Einstein - context of quote “The formulation of a problem is often far more essential than its solution” - Large image (800 x 600 px)
  • Albert Einstein - context of quote “Our exalted technological progress” - Medium image (500 x 350 px)
  • Albert Einstein - context of quote “Our exalted technological progress” - Large image (800 x 600 px)
  • Albert Einstein - context of quote “There exists a passion for comprehension” - Medium image (500 x 350 px)
  • Albert Einstein - context of quote “There exists a passion for comprehension” - Large image (800 x 600 px)
  • Albert Einstein - context of quote “An equation is for eternity” - Medium image (500 x 350 px)
  • Albert Einstein - context of quote “An equation is for eternity” - Large image (800 x 600 px)
  • Subtle Is the Lord: The Science and the Life of Albert Einstein, by Abraham Pais. - book suggestion.
  • Booklist for Albert Einstein.

Carl Sagan Thumbnail In science it often happens that scientists say, 'You know that's a really good argument; my position is mistaken,' and then they would actually change their minds and you never hear that old view from them again. They really do it. It doesn't happen as often as it should, because scientists are human and change is sometimes painful. But it happens every day. I cannot recall the last time something like that happened in politics or religion. (1987) -- Carl Sagan
Quotations by:Albert EinsteinIsaac NewtonLord KelvinCharles DarwinSrinivasa RamanujanCarl SaganFlorence NightingaleThomas EdisonAristotleMarie CurieBenjamin FranklinWinston ChurchillGalileo GalileiSigmund FreudRobert BunsenLouis PasteurTheodore RooseveltAbraham LincolnRonald ReaganLeonardo DaVinciMichio KakuKarl PopperJohann GoetheRobert OppenheimerCharles Kettering  ... (more people)

Quotations about:Atomic  BombBiologyChemistryDeforestationEngineeringAnatomyAstronomyBacteriaBiochemistryBotanyConservationDinosaurEnvironmentFractalGeneticsGeologyHistory of ScienceInventionJupiterKnowledgeLoveMathematicsMeasurementMedicineNatural ResourceOrganic ChemistryPhysicsPhysicianQuantum TheoryResearchScience and ArtTeacherTechnologyUniverseVolcanoVirusWind PowerWomen ScientistsX-RaysYouthZoology  ... (more topics)
Sitewide search within all Today In Science History pages:
Visit our Science and Scientist Quotations index for more Science Quotes from archaeologists, biologists, chemists, geologists, inventors and inventions, mathematicians, physicists, pioneers in medicine, science events and technology.

Names index: | A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z |

Categories index: | 1 | 2 | A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z |

- 100 -
Sophie Germain
Gertrude Elion
Ernest Rutherford
James Chadwick
Marcel Proust
William Harvey
Johann Goethe
John Keynes
Carl Gauss
Paul Feyerabend
- 90 -
Antoine Lavoisier
Lise Meitner
Charles Babbage
Ibn Khaldun
Euclid
Ralph Emerson
Robert Bunsen
Frederick Banting
Andre Ampere
Winston Churchill
- 80 -
John Locke
Bronislaw Malinowski
Bible
Thomas Huxley
Alessandro Volta
Erwin Schrodinger
Wilhelm Roentgen
Louis Pasteur
Bertrand Russell
Jean Lamarck
- 70 -
Samuel Morse
John Wheeler
Nicolaus Copernicus
Robert Fulton
Pierre Laplace
Humphry Davy
Thomas Edison
Lord Kelvin
Theodore Roosevelt
Carolus Linnaeus
- 60 -
Francis Galton
Linus Pauling
Immanuel Kant
Martin Fischer
Robert Boyle
Karl Popper
Paul Dirac
Avicenna
James Watson
William Shakespeare
- 50 -
Stephen Hawking
Niels Bohr
Nikola Tesla
Rachel Carson
Max Planck
Henry Adams
Richard Dawkins
Werner Heisenberg
Alfred Wegener
John Dalton
- 40 -
Pierre Fermat
Edward Wilson
Johannes Kepler
Gustave Eiffel
Giordano Bruno
JJ Thomson
Thomas Kuhn
Leonardo DaVinci
Archimedes
David Hume
- 30 -
Andreas Vesalius
Rudolf Virchow
Richard Feynman
James Hutton
Alexander Fleming
Emile Durkheim
Benjamin Franklin
Robert Oppenheimer
Robert Hooke
Charles Kettering
- 20 -
Carl Sagan
James Maxwell
Marie Curie
Rene Descartes
Francis Crick
Hippocrates
Michael Faraday
Srinivasa Ramanujan
Francis Bacon
Galileo Galilei
- 10 -
Aristotle
John Watson
Rosalind Franklin
Michio Kaku
Isaac Asimov
Charles Darwin
Sigmund Freud
Albert Einstein
Florence Nightingale
Isaac Newton



who invites your feedback
Thank you for sharing.
Today in Science History
Sign up for Newsletter
with quiz, quotes and more.